2.1 Phonetic Structure
The organs of speech involved in the production of various speech sounds can be classified into two categories i.e. articulators and points of articulation. The articulators are the organs of speech, which move towards the points of articulation to produce the sounds. Lower lip and different regions of tongue are articulators and upper lip, upper teeth, teeth ridge, hard palate, soft palate, uvula and pharynx etc. are points of articulation.
2.1.1. Classification of speech sounds
Speech sounds can be classified into two broad groups: Vowels and Consonants.
18.104.22.168. Vowels: While producing vowels, air stream coming from lungs passes through the oral cavity without any obstruction. They are differentiated on the basis of tongue position (front, central and back) tongue height (high, lower high, higher mid, mid, tower mid and low etc.) and lip position (unrounded and rounded). Different parts of the tongue move to different heights within the oral cavity and the shape of the lips changes while articulating different vowels. While producing the vowels, vocal cards vibrate and and hence the vowels are voiced.
A set of two vowels produced with a single syllable is called diphthong.
While articulating the non-nasalized vowels, the nasal passage of the oral cavity is closed and it remains open to produce the nasalized vowels.
22.214.171.124. Consonants and Semivowels: While producing consonants, the flow of air coming from lungs is stopped of having friction at different points of articulation. The shape of oral cavity through which the air passes is also changed accordingly. Thus the production of consonants involves the point of articulation (the configuration of articulators) and manner of articulation (the way which the air is released while producing a consonant). Broadly the consonants are classified as stops (explosives and implosives), nasals, fricatives, laterals, trills, flaps and semivowels, etc.
While producing stops the flow of air is blocked at some point in the oral cavity. In the production of nasals the air coming from the lungs is directed into nasal cavity by lowering the soft palate. When the contact is released the air passes through the nasal cavity. While producing a fricative consonant the air stream is pushed through a narrow opening which causes the friction. In the production of a lateral the air is blocked in the middle of mouth by raising the mid surface of the tongue and the air is allowed to escape from the sides of the tongue. There is a rapid vibration of the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth ridge while producing a trill. In the production of a flap the tip of the tongue approaches the hard palate but does not make any contact, the air escapes between the tip of tongue and palate. In the production of a semi-vowel the position of the speech organs remains same as in the case of a fricative but due to a weaker breath force friction is not audible.
The consonants are also classified on the basis of voiceness and aspiration. The consonants produced without any vibration of the vocal cords are called voiceless (vl.) and the consonants produced with a vibration are called voiced (vd), while producing the un-aspirated (asp) and aspirated consonants of a same group. The speech organs remain in the same position except that while relaxing the contact an extra puff of breath comes out which is called aspiration.
2.2 Sindhi Sound System:
2.2.1. Inventory of Sindhi Segmental Phonemes
There are 51 segmental phonemes in Sindhi: 10 vowels, 39 consonants and 2 semi-vowels.
126.96.36.199.Vowels: Sindhi has 10 vowels /ӘaIiປueєoכ/ Out of which 3 are short vowels: /ӘIປ/ and remaining are long vowels. These can be described by the following chart.
|Hight of the tongue||Position of the tongue ►||Front||Central||Back|
|Roundness of the lips ►||Unrounded||Untouched||Rounded|
188.8.131.52. Consonants and Semi-vowels: These are given in the following chart.
Manner of Articulation
Point of Articulation
*[q] is a marginal phoneme in Sindhi, which occurs in some Perso-Arabic lexical items and is restricted to the formal speech of the elite only.
184.108.40.206. Distinctive Features: Phonemic contrasts between segneutral phonemes
are given below. It must be noted that Sindhi is a vowel ending language and therefore the contrasts of vowels are given in all the three
positions: Initial (I), Medial (M) and Final (F) and contrasts of consonants and semivowels are given only in the initial and medial
220.127.116.11.1. Contrasts between Comparable vowels phonemes:
|Әḍՙo| ‘halting place’
|asӘnປ| ‘a posture’
|IţӘ| ‘kickbyan animal’
|iţӘ| ‘the club (in a suit of cards)’
|ປco| ‘superier (quality)’
|sປţປ| ‘pants, trousers’
|abũ| ‘unripe ears of a corn’
|e| ‘(just) listen’
|sεrປ| ‘a seer’
|ke| some ones
|kε| [qε] ‘omit’
|orI| ‘talkover (sg imprative)
|holi| ‘Holi-a Hindu festival’
18.104.22.168.2. Contrasts between Comparable Consonants:
22.214.171.124.2.1. Voiceless v/s voiced
||p|:|b||| |pәkә| ‘certainly’ |
|phәri| ‘legume of pulse grain’
|tәrປ| ‘texture of cloth’
|ţປkәņປ| ‘to gnaw’
|ḍປkәņປ| ‘to run’
|roţປ| ‘a thick bread offered to the deity’
|ӘḍhӘ| 'inherited habit'
|jaro| ‘niche (in a wall)’'
|kәjo| ‘do (pl. future imperative)’
|ghປrປ| ‘demand (sg. imprative)’
|ປkhaŗәņປ| ‘to uproot’
|ປghaŗәņປ| ‘to uncover’
126.96.36.199.2.2. Non-aspirated v/s Aspirated
|peru| | ‘foot’
|bәŗປ| ‘banyan tree’
|kәtәņປ| ‘to spin’
|kәthәņປ| ‘to evaluate’
|dhaņo| ‘coriander seed’
|adhi| ‘fifty paisa coin’
|pәţәņປ| ‘to pluck’
|pәţhәņປ| ‘to send’
|kәņḍi| ‘thomay bush’
|әco| ‘come (pl. imperative)’
|jәlәņປ| ‘to burn’
|jhәlәņປ| ‘to hold’
|gປji| | ‘stomach’
|gՙປjhi| ‘secret (f.sg)’
|akәņປ| ‘to estimate’
|akhәņປ| ‘to tell’
|gharI| ‘to pass time (sf imperative)’
|bәgi| 'a four horse carriage'
188.8.131.52.2.3. Explosive stops v/s implosive stops
|rәbә| ‘god (obl)’
|ḍohປ|‘breach of trust’
|jaro| | ‘niche (in a wall)’
|gՙarI| ‘melt (sg. imperative)’
184.108.40.206.2.4. Contrasts between Nasals
|mәmә| ‘a type of animals’
|mәñә| ‘bride’s marriage party’
|Note: |ņñŋ| do not occur in the initial position|
220.127.116.11.2.5. Stops v/s fricatives
|phປţi| ‘cotton (with seeds)’
|kәfປ| ‘cuff' (of a shirt, etc.)
|jalә| ‘web (obl)’
|rәlo| ‘shopkeepers cash, box’
|berәmປ| ‘without any sorrow’
|kharປ| ‘washing soda’
18.104.22.168.2.6. Contrasts between comparable fricatives
22.214.171.124.2.7. Lateral v/s trill
|rәkhປ| ‘put’ (sg, imperative)
126.96.36.199.2.8. Trill v/s flap
|chປrәņປ| ‘to print on cloth, etc.’
|chປŗәņປ| ‘to be untied’
|Note: |ŗ| does not occur in the initial position|
188.8.131.52.2.9. Contrasts between semivowels
|sava| ‘green (m.pl.)’
184.108.40.206.3. Some observations about distribution and phonetic description of allophonic members of the phonemes:
(1) Sindhi is a vowel ending language. In other words each word in Sindhi ends in a vowel.
(2) Phonetically Sindhi has three short vowels /ӘIປ/ and the remaining seven vowels are long. All the vowels occur in the initial, medial and final positions. The short vowels /ӘIປ/ are pronounced shorter in the final position. Due to contact with other consonant ending languages many Sindhi speakers have started dropping these short vowels which has affected the grammatical pattern of the language up to some extent.
(3) The vowels |ε| and |כ| are less frequent than other vowels. Phonetically these vowels are pronounced as simple vowels [ε] and [ә], diphthongs [әÎ] and vowel sequence [ә-I] and [ә-ປ] in free variation. It does not affect the phonemic pattern of the language Examples:
|sεrປ| [sεrປ]~[sәÎrປ]~[sә-Irປ] ‘excursion’
|sכ| [sכ]~[sәÎ]~[sә-ປ] ‘hundred’
(4) In Sindhi all the consonants except |ņñŋŗ| occur in word initial and medial positions. |ņñŋŗ| occur only in medial position.
(5) All the consonants and semivowels occur in intervocalic position in the language.
(6) Sindhi has fullest stop system in comparison to other Indo-Aryan languages. There is contrast between voicing and unvoicing as well as aspiration and non-aspiration.
(7) The implosive stops |b̉ḍ̉j̉g| are peculiar sounds in Sindhi. They are produced by suction of the air from mouth into the glottis, which produce the rarefaction of the air into the pharyngeal cavity between the larynx and the point of articulation. About the articulary description of the implosive sounds Khubchandani (1966) states that by lowering the larynx a partial vacuum is created and outside air is sucked into break the occlusion of lip or tongue and simultaneously the glottis is put in vibrating position to permit the formation voicing. It is observed that the duration of voicing of the implosives is shorter in compression to their corresponding explosives, but they have greater intensity of loudness than the corresponding explosives.
Unvoiced implosives do not occur in the language.
In comparison to the explosive stops there is gap of dental implosive |d՛ |in the language.
(8) [q] is a marginal phoneme is the language which occur in some Perso-Arabic borrowings and has contrast with velar |k| i.e. |kilo| 'peg' |qilo| 'fort'. Its use is restricted to the formal speech of the elite only. It is generally replaced by velar [k] by the speakers.
(9) Sindhi is the only Indo-Aryan language, which has a full series of five destructive nasals |mnņñŋ| corresponding to its series of other stops.
The phoneme |n| has also two allophones.
[ŋ] dental nasal. It occurs before dental stop i.e. /ḍ̉әndປ/ [ḍ̉әŋdປ] 'tooth'.
[n] alveolar nasal. It occurs elsewhere i.e. |nalo| [navo] ‘name’ |kәnປ|[kәnປ] 'ear’|
The phoneme |ņ| has also two allophones.
[ņ] post-alveolar nasal. It occurs before a retroflex stop. I.e. |mәņḍo|[mәņḍo] ‘lame’
[ŗ๊] nasalised retroflex flap. It occurs elsewhere. I.e. |kaņo|[kaŗ๊o] ‘one eyed’
(10) Germination (dobling of unaspirated consonants) is not phonemic in Sindhi.
(11) The phoneme |h| has two allophonic members.
[h] voiceless glottal frictionless consonant. It occurs as a first member of a consonant cluster. I.e. |sasປ|[әhsasປ] feeling
[ĥ] voiced glottal fricative. It occurs elsewhere. I.e. |hәva|[ĥәva] ‘air’; |gahປ|[gahປ] ‘grass’.
(12) The semivowel |v| has two allophonic members.
[Uู| voiced back rounded bilabial glide. It occurs as a code when it closes the syllable i.e.
[v] voiced back rounded ratiodental semi-vowel. It occurs elsewhere i.e. |varປ| [varປ| 'hair' |sava|[sava] 'green (pl.m.)'
(13) The semivowel |y| has also two allophonic numbers.
[Iู] voiced front unrounded palatal glide. It occurs as a code when it closes the syllable i.e.
[y] voiced front unrounded palatal semi-vowel. It occurs elsewhere i.e.
(14) In Sindhi |fz| occur in Perso-Arabic and English borrowings and |xr| occur only in some lexical items borrowed from Perso-Arabic languages. A great number of Sindhi speakers use |kg| for |xr| respectively. The phonemes |fz| are also replaced by |phj| by many speakers in their day to day speech.
The description of minute and other variations is not given in the present discussion.
220.127.116.11. Vowel Sequences
Sindhi is a vowel ending language
18.104.22.168.1. Some observation about the vowel sequences.
(1) All the vowels occur in all the three positions. The sequences of two vowels are more common in the language. i.e.
|aປ| 'come (imperative of)'
|dhiປnI| 'daughters (obl)'
The frequency of two vowel sequences in non-initial positions is more common than initial position.
(2) /ε/does not occur in a vowel sequence in the language.
(3) The frequency of /כ/ in a vowel sequence is very limited.
It does not occur as a second member in a vowel sequence.
(4) Some sequences of three vowels also occur in all the three position. .i.e.
|aiә๊| 'you (if feminine) came' | |ḍhoaIղu| 'to couse to be carried' |dປaű| 'blessings'
22.214.171.124.2 phonetic realization of phonemes.
(1).A phonetic glottal [ ? ] occurs in two peaks of: |Әsiĩ| [Әsi2ĩ] 'eightieth' |hປປsI| [hປ2ປsI] 'was (first person sf intr]'
(2). The remaining sequences are accompanied by [y] or [w] glide in between two vowels. [Y] Occurs with front vowels |Li| and [W] occurs with back vowels |ປ u|. i.e.
/thIәղປ/ [thiyәղປ] ‘to happen’ /dhiәrປ/ [dhiyәrປ] ‘daughters’ |pio| [piyo] 'drink (imperative pb.) |hປa| [hປwa] 'were (m. third person)' |sua| [suwa] 'knitting needs'
Some observation about consonant clusters in Sindhi are given below.
(1) Clusters having two consonants are very common in the language. Some clusters are having three or even four consonants.
|gyanປ| 'knowledge' |Әŋgrezປ| 'an Englishman' |sӘղrhyű| 'thin (f.pl.)
(2). All consonants except |y| occurs as first member in the consonant clusters.
(3). |h| does not occur after any voiced consonant in a consonant cluster.
(4). Two aspirated stops or two implosives do not occur together in a consonant cluster.
(5). Germination is very loss frequent in Sindhi. It is not phonemic in the language.
(6) The frequency of |Y| occurring after a consonant and |r| before a consonant is more in comparison to other consonants.
(7). The consonant clusters with nasals labial, trill and flap are more common in the language.
(8) Many Perso Arabic as well as English borrowing, and use of Sanskrit based 'tatsama' have affected the cluster pattern of the language up to some extent.
Sindhi has open syllable structure. A word may have one of the following syllabic patterns:
V : |a| [a] 'come (imperative sf)' Vc : |arsປ| [ar-sປ] 'laziness. VCC : / Inspekţәrປ/ [Ins-pek-ţәrປ] ‘inspector’ CVC /әjayәbghәrປ/ [ә-ja-Yәb-ghәrປ] ‘museum’ CV /ghәrປ/ [ghә-rປ] ‘house’ CCV /poŗho/ [po.ŗho] ‘old man’ CCVC /brahmәղປ/ [brah-mә-ղປ] ‘Brahmin’ CCCV /mәntryປnI/ [mәn-tryປnI] ‘ministers (obl)’
In Sindhi a phonological word can be monosyllabic or tri syllabic. Some words have four, five, six or seven syllables. i.e.
|ḍ՛e| [ḍ՛e] 'give (imperative sf)' /kәnປ/ [kәnປ] ‘ear’ /likhәղປ/ [li-khә-ղປ] ‘to write’ /kәmaIղປ/ [kә-ma-I-ղປ] ‘to earn’ /likharaIղປ/ [li-kha-ra-I-ղປ] ‘to cause to be written’ /raštriyәkәrәղປ/ [raš-tri-yә-kә-rә-ղປ] ‘nationalization’ /kharaindosãsI/[lI.kha-ra-ind-o-sã-sI] ‘I shall make him to write’.
When a word has more than three syllables generally there is a small pause between two or three syllables.
The Perso-Arabic as well as English borrowing and Sanskrit based 'tatsam' words have added some syllabic patterns in the language.
While combining two or more than two morphemes there is a phonological change in a form and it is called morphophonemic change. There are two types of morphophonemic change phonologically conditioned changes and morphologically conditioned changes.
(1) When /ә/ or /a/ is following by /a/ it changes into one vowel i.e. /a/. Examples: /nә + ahe/ → /nahe/ ‘it is not’ |cha+ahe| → |chahe| 'wat is it ?'
(2) when |i| is follwed by |i| it changes into one vowel i.e. |i|.
|pi+i| -> |pi| 'having drunk'
(3) The vowel |ປ| becomes |o| before suffix |-ປ| or |-i|.
|dhປ+ປ| → |dhoປ| 'wash (sf imprative)' |dhປ+i| → |dhoi| 'having washed'
(4) If a vowel is followed by |I|or |i| |Y| occurs in between the two vowels.
|ḍ̉I +o| -> |ḍ̉Iyo| 'give (pl imperative)'
(5) If a vowel is followed by |ປ| or |u|, |v| occurs in between the two vowels. Example:
|hປ+a sĩ | → |hປvasĩ| 'were (first person pl.) | ku+ a | → |kuva| 'rats'
There are many Sanskrit based compound and complex words having phonological conditioned changes and are used in Sindhi. The morphophonemic changes occurring in such words are not discussed in this chapter.
(1) Long vowel becomes short before taking |-nI| plural oblique member. Examples:
|sປţha chokira| 'good boys'| sປţhӘnI chokirgnI khe | 'to the good boys' |sປţhyũ chokIryũ| 'good girls' |sປţhyປnI chokIryປnI khe| 'to the good girls'
(2) The vowel |u| occurs before adding a pronominal suffix to |ã| ending postposition. Examples:
|khã+sI | → |khãປsI| 'from him /her' |vӘţã+nI | → |vӘtãປnI| 'from them'
(3) If there is one more vowel before /-o/ ending noun or adjective or
/-u/ ending noun the sound /v/ produced in such word is plural direct as well as oblique forms. Examples:
|sao| 'green (sf direct form)' |sava| 'green (pl. direct form.)' |savәnI| 'green (pl. oblique form)' |pao| 'leg of a chair or cot' |pava| 'legs of a chair or cot (direct form)' |pavәnI| ‘legs of a chair or cot (obl. form)’ |kãປ| ‘crow (direct form)’ |kãvә| ‘crows (direct form)’ |kãvәnI| ‘crows (obl. form)’
(4) There is a loss of |Y| of |-Yo| ending nouns in their sf oblique forms. Example:
|rປ pәyo | 'rupee' (direct form)
|rປpәe| ‘rupee’ (oblique form)
(5) There is a loss of past marker |y| in feminine sg second person and third person forms.
|aiә๊ | 'You came (f sg)'
|ai| 'she came'.
(6) There is a loss of past maker |-Y| in some verbs such as |hປәղປ| and |lәģәղປ| etc. Example:
|hປasĩ| ‘(we) were’. |lәģo| ‘struck’
(7) is a loss of final consonant of some verbs when past maker |-Y-| is suffixed to them. Examples:
|kәr-| → |kәyo| ‘did’ |әc-| → |ayo| ‘come’ |vәր-| → |vyo| ‘went’ |cәv-| → |cәyo| ‘said’ |khәղ-| → |khә๊yo| ‘lifted’
(8) There is a loss of final consonant of the verbs /kәr -/, /әc -/ and /vәր-/ when present participle marker /- and / and / is suffixed to them. Examples:
|kәndo| ‘(he) will do’ |Indo| '(he) will come'. |vendo| '(he) will go'
(9) (9) There is also a loss of final consonant of the verb /kәr./ in the following constructions.
i. Future imperative i.e. / kәjI/ ‘do (sf)’ /kәjo/ ‘do(pl)’ ii. Indefinite passive: /kәje/ ‘should be done (sg)' /kәjәnI / ‘should be done (pl)’ iii. Predicative passive: /kәbo/ ‘will be done’ iv. Optative third person plural: '(They) may do'
(10) There is a loss of final vowel |I| of the verb stems when any inflection suffix is added to them. Examples:
|bՙປdhaI| → |bՙæປdhayã| '(I) may inform' |bՙປdhaYo| '(you) informed'
There are many numeral adjectives and pronominal suffixed type construction in the language, which are formed with some morphophonemic changes. They are not discussed in this chapter.
There are four types of super segmental features in Sindhi, namely: nasalization, Juncture, stress and intonation.
Nasalization | ~ | is a prosodic feature in Sindhi which has the scope of more then one segmental phonemes.
Every oral vowel has a nasalized counterpart in language. There is a contrast between non-nasalized and nasalized vowels. Examples:
/Ә/: /Ә๊/ /jՙiә/ ‘life (obl.)’ / jՙiә๊/ ‘as’ /a/: /ã/ /sa/ that (fsg) /sã/ ‘along with’ /i /: /ĩ/ /әsi/ ‘eighty’ /әsĩ/ ‘we’ /u/: /ປ/ /aປ/ 'come (sg imperative)' /aປ๊/ ‘I’ /u/:/ű/ /huә/ 'she' /hűә / ‘other wise’ /o/: /õ/ /kao/ ‘glass’ /kaõ/ ‘in which order Im)’ /כ/ : /๊כ/ /sכ/ ‘hundred’/s כ๊/ ‘oath’
(1) When more than one vowel occur together in a word, then when one vowel is nasalized the other gets nasalized colom. Example:
/ģәũә/ [ģә๊ũә๊ ] ‘cow (obl.)’
(2) When a semi vowel is followed or proceeded by a nasalized vowel then when one of them is nasalized the semi vowel also gets a nasalized colom. Example:
/kãva / [kãv๊ã] ‘crows’
Juncture is a transition and rhythm of successive syllables.
There are two types of junctures in the language: close juncture and open junctures.
A close juncture |ں| is characterised by a silence transition between |V ں V |and a segmental release between consonants and start of another accent unit |vںc|, |cںc| or | ں | etc in a word. It is not marked in the phonemic transcription.
Examples: |paղi| [paںղi ] 'water'
/jәjmanປ/ [jәj ںmanປ] ‘Brahmin’s client’ ; /dәstәndazi/ [dәstںәndazi. ‘Interference’
126.96.36.199.1.2. Open Junctures
There are four types of open junctures: Internal open juncture, pause juncture, Terminal falling juncture and Terminal rising juncture marked as /+/ ↓ ↑ /respectively/.
188.8.131.52.1.2.1. Internal open juncture. /+/
It coincides with the word boundary. It is determined by a slight pause.
184.108.40.206.1.2.2. Pause juncture /1/
It coincides with the clause boundary and is determinded by all features of /+/and a longer pause.
220.127.116.11.1.2.3. Terminal falling juncture / ↓ /
It coincides with the utterance boundary with a falling pitch.
18.104.22.168.1.2. n Terminal rising juncture / ↑ /
It also coincides with the utterance boundary. It occurs with a rising pitch.
/ں/ : /+/ /choںkIri/ 'girl' /cho+kIri/ 'why did she fall down'
/+/: /l/ /khirIղi khaປ+nә ‘piປ/ don’t eat the sweet dish (a preparation of rice and milk boiled together) ; drink it’
/l/: / / ↓ /pәţaţa ţәmaţa bәsәrә l/ ‘potatoes, tomatoes, onions...(let me see what else?)
/pәţaţa tәmaţa bәsәrә ↓/ potatoes, tomatoes, onions. (The complete list.)
/l/ : /↑/ /kerປ ayo ahe | raju ↑/ ‘who has come? Was he Raju?
/kerປ ayo ahe ↑ raju ↑/ Raju, see who has come?
/ ↓ / : /↑/ /Inә te hປnә ghәղo. әrchປ kәyo ↓/ ‘He spent a lot on it:
/Inә te hປnә ghәղo xәrcປ kәyo ↑/ How much did he spend on it:
22.214.171.124.3 some observations
(1) Generally the pre-juncture sounds are more affected than the post-juncture sounds.
(2) The aspirated sounds are produced with less aspiration than the normal.
(3) If the voiced stops are once produced with less voicing then their duration may increase.
(4) There is an amount of pitch (raising / falling) in the pre-juncture as well as post-juncture positions.
Stress occurs at word level as well as sentence level.
126.96.36.199.1 Word stress.
In Sindhi a phonological word has only one prominent syllable i.e. syllable with heavy stress [ ' ] and other syllables in the word have secondary [ ∩ ] or weak [ ں ] stress. At word level stress is not phonemic as it is in English but if a speaker is not putting a proper stress on a specific syllable it looks unnatural to a native speaker as it would not fit into the phonetic structure of the language.
188.8.131.52.1. Some observations.
(1) A mono syllabic word has only one heavy stress, i.e. /cho/ [chó] ‘why’.
(2) If a disyllabic word has short vowels, then the non-initial syllable has heavy stress. i.e. /pәnә/ [pә̉nә̉ ] ‘leaves’.
(3) If a disyllabic word has one short and another long vowel, then the syllable having long vowel will have heavy stress; i.e. /bhaģປ/ [bháģປ] ‘luck’.
(4) If a disyllabic word has both long vowels then the non-initial syllable will have heavy stress; i.e. /ka,a/ [kârá] ‘black (pl.m.)’
(5) If a trisyllabic word has all short vowels then its last syllable will have heavy stress, i.e./vәcәnປ/ [vәˇcәˆnປ] ‘promise’.
(6) If a trisyllabic word has one long vowel and two short vowels, then the syllable having long vowel will have heavy stress; i.e./asәnu/ [ásәˇnû] ‘a posture’.
(7) If a trisyllable word has more than one long vowel, then the second syllable having long vowel will have heavy stress; i.e. /asanປ/ [âsánǔ] ‘easy’.
(8) In a derivational or compound word generally the first stress will be heavy stress.
184.108.40.206.1.2. Phonetic realization of phonemes.
(1) The heavy stress aids tenseness in the stressed sound.
(2) The Heavy stressed vowel may become longer.
(3) Due to the stress there may be increase in the pitch level.
(4) There may be a decrease in the length of other sound/s due to the stresslessness.
(5) There may be a decrease in the aspiration of an aspirated consonant due to the stresslessness.
220.127.116.11.2. Extra heavy stress.
In contrast, a word stress or an extra heavy stress / " / is put in any one word in an utterance for an emphatic statement.
Examples: /mũ b՛ә sIndhi kItabә xәribә kәya/ ‘I purchased two Sindhi books’ (general statement) /mّũ! b՛ә sIndhi kItabә xәridә kәya/ ‘I purchased two Sindhi books’ (emphasizing the subject). /mũ b՛ّә! sIndhi kItabә xәridә kәya/ ‘I purchased two Sindhi books’ (emphasizing the number of books). /mũ b՛ә sIndhi! kItabә xәridә kәya/ ‘I purchased two Sindhi books’ (emphasizing the language of books).
18.104.22.168.3. Drawled stress.
In contrast with heavy stress and extra heavy stress, a drawled stress / °/ is produced by stretching a syllable by four to five times than its normal length. The pre-drawled or post-drawled syllables are shortened while producing a drawled stress. Generally the drawling of initial syllable denotes conformation or encouragement and drawling of final syllable denotes persuasion or irritation. The contrast between / ' / and /°/ is given below:
/aste/ [âsté] ‘slowly’ (general statement)
/åste/ [aaåastê] ‘still slower’ (confirmation or encouragement).
/asteํ [âsteeeํe] ‘slowly’ (I again request you).
The combination of pitch levels and terminal contours indicates the intonation patterns which are super imposed on the different segments in an utterance.
There are four pitch levels: low, mid high and extra high marked as /1234/ respectively and three terminal contours level, falling and rising marked as / l ↓ ↑ / respectively.
In many cases the distinction between a statement and a question or between a statement or exclamation etc is expressed by intonation. Thus intonation at syntactic level is phonemic in Sindhi. Example:
/2hປnә khã3 3pປchәndò|/ 'He will ask him'. / 2hປnә khã3 3pປchәndo ↑/ 'will he ask him?' / 3hປnә khã3 pປchәndo ↓/ 'He will ask him!' (annoyance).
All lexical items in Sindhi are either monomorphomic (simple) or polymorphomic (complex). A monomorphomic stem consists of a single root while a polymorphomic stem consists of a root followed by either one or more derivative suffix (es) or by one or more root(s) which in turn may be followed by one or more derivative suffixes. In other words, a stem may occur in its base form or it may be accompanied by another form (s) or suffix (es).
According to their grammatical functions all the stems in the language may be divided into three major classes; nominals, verbals and adjuncts. Nominal and verbal stems require inflection to enter into syntactic constructions and concords. Adjuncts are those stems which amplify a sentence. They stand by themselves in an utterance and normally are not inflected.
Nominals are those stems which may occur independently or inflect according to gender, number and case.
The nominals may be divided into three sub-classes: nouns, pronouns and adjectives.
On the basis of their structure, Sindhi noun stems may be simple or complex. Simple stems are monomorphomic forms i.e. /mәrdປ/ 'man', /hathi/ 'elephant' and /ghorປ/ 'house' etc. Complex stems are formed through derivation, composition and reduplication. Examples:
/rándigәrປ/ 'player' (/irandI / 'game') /khirәvaro/ 'milkman' (/khirປ/ 'milk') /oŗopaŗo/ 'neighborhood'
In Sindhi nouns are assigned to one of the two genders; masculine (m) and feminine (f). Most of the masculine nouns end in /-o/ or /-ປ/ i.e. /chokIro/ 'boy' and /mәrdປ/ 'man'. Some masculine nouns also end in /-i/, /-I/, /-Ә/ and /-u/; i.e. /dhob̉i/ 'washer man', /seţhI/ 'rich merchant', /raja/ 'king' and /sadhu/ 'saint' etc.
Most of the feminine nouns end in /-i/ or /-ә/; i.e. /chokiri/ 'girl' and /כratә/ 'women'. Some feminine nouns also end in /-I/, /-a/ or /-ປ/, i.e. /sכţI/ 'cousin sister', /malha/ 'garland' and /sәsປ/ mother-in-law' etc.
These nouns inflect according to their number: Singular (sg) and Plural (pl) and case: direct (dir) vocative (voc) and oblique (obl.) generally the nouns take inflectional suffixes according to their ending which are given below:
Sg pl Dir voc. Obl dir voc obl Masculine: - o -a -e -a -o -nI -ປ -ә -ә -ә -ә -nI -I -I +-ә -i +o -nI -u -u +-Ә -u -o -nI -I -I -ũ -ũ -nI -a -a -a -ũ -o -nI Feminine:- -İ -İ +-ә -ũ -ũ -nI -I -I -I -ũ -ũ -nI -Ә -ә -ә -ũ -ũ -nI -a -a -a -ũ -ũ -nI -ປ -ປ -ປ -ũ -ũ -nI Examples: Masculine Sg. Pl. Dir voc obl. Dir voc obl /chokIr//chokIre//chokIre khe/ /chokIrәo//chokIrәo//chokIrәnI khe/ 'boy' 'o boy' 'to the boy'' boys' 'o boys' 'to the boys' /mәrdu/ /mәrdә//mәrdә khe/ /mәrdә/ /mәrdo/ /mәrdәnI khe/ 'man' 'o man' 'to the man' 'men' 'o men' 'to the men' /dhobՙi/ /dhobՙi/ /dhobՙiә khe/ /dhobՙi/ /dhobՙio/ /dhobՙyປnI khe/ 'washer man' 'o washer man, 'washer men' 'o washer men, 'to the washer man 'to the washer men /sadhu/ /sadhu/ /sadhuә khe/ /sadhu/ /sadhປo/ /sadhປnI khe/ 'saint' 'o saint' 'to the saint' 'saints' 'o saints' 'to the saints' /seţhI/ /seţhI/ /seţhI khe/ /seţhyũ/ /seţhyũ/ /seţhyປnI khe/ 'marchant' 'o marchant 'marchants' 'o marchants 'to the marchant' 'to the marchants' /raja/ /raja/ /raja khe/ /raja/ /raja/ /rajaປnI khe/ 'king' 'o king' 'to the king' 'kings' 'o kings' 'to the kings' Feminine: /chokIri/ /chokIri/ /chokIrә khe/ /chokIryũ/ /chokIyũ//chokIryປnIkhe/ 'girl' 'o girl' 'to the girl' 'girls' 'o girls' 'to the girls' /sכţI/ /sכţI/ /sכţI khe/ /sכţyũ/ /sכţyũ/ /sכţyunI khe/ 'cousin 'o cousin 'to the cousin 'cousin 'o cousin 'to the cousin sister' sister' sister' sisters' sisters' sisters' /כrәtә/ /כrәtә/ /כrәtә khe/ /כrәtũ/ /כrәtũ/ /כrәtປnI khe/ 'woman' 'o woman' 'to the woman' 'women' 'o women' 'to the women' /malha/ /malha/ /malha mẽ/ /malhaũ/ /malhaũ//malhaປnI mẽ/ 'garland' 'o garland' 'in the garland' 'garlands' 'o garlands' 'inthe garlands' /sәsປ/ /sәsປ/ /sәsປ khe/ /sәsũ/ /sәsũ/ /sәsປni khe/ 'mother-in-law' 'o mother-in-law' 'mothers-in-law' 'o mothers-in-law' 'to the mother-in-law' 'to the mothers-in-law'
22.214.171.124. Notes: 1. In Sindhi, proper nouns are also inflected like common nouns. Examples: Dir voc obl. /gopalo/ /gopala/ /gopale khe/ 'Gopalo' 'o Gopalo' 'to Gopalo' /mohIni/ /mohIni/ /mohIniә khe/ 'Mohini' 'O Mohini' 'to Mohini' /mປmbәi/ /mປmbәi ә mẽ/ 'Mumbai' 'In Mumbai'
2. No postposition is used with direct and vocative forms. Each noun in the oblique form is followed by a postposition.
In the past, transitive type construction and the subject was used in the oblique form and do not have any postposition.
In such cases the suffix + f / may be considered to maintain the system. Examples:
/chokIro xәtປ lIkhe tho/ 'The boy writes a letter'
/chokIre Ø xәtປ lIkhyo/ 'The boy wrote a letter'.
3. The feminine direct and vocative forms one identical group in the language. 4. Some nouns mainly kinship terms take different plural markers. Examples: sg pl /bhaປ/ 'brother' /bhaປrә/ 'brothers' /bheņә/ 'sister' /bhenәrປ/ 'sisters' 5. /-i/ and /-I/ are changed to /-Y/ before taking /thũ/ marker /-ũ/. Examples: sg pl /seţhI/ 'marchant' /seţhyũ/ 'marchants'/ /bhItI/ 'wall' /bhItyũ/ 'walls' /chokIri/ 'girl' /chokIryũ/ 'girls' 6. Long vowels become short before taking the plural oblique marker /-nI/. Examples: sg pl /sadhu/ 'saints' /sadhປnI khe/ 'to the saints' /rajaũ/ 'kings' /rajaປnI khe/ 'to the kings' /chokIryũ/ 'girls' /chokIryປnI khe/ 'to the girls' /כrәtũ/ 'women' /כrәtປnI khe/ 'to the 'women' 7. The English borrowing ending in /-I/ drop /-I/ before taking plural marker /-ũ/. /-Y/ is not used with these nouns. Examples: sg. Pl /bәsI/ 'bus' /bәsũ/ 'buses' /nәrsI/ 'nurse' /nәrsũ/ 'nurses'
Many Sindhi speakers drop /-I/ abo in singular forms and produce these forms with consonant ending.
8. In some cases mainly locative, instrumental and ablative optionally case marker are added to the nouns and postposition are dropped. Examples:
/ghәro mẽ/ ~ /ghәrI/ 'in the house' /hәthә sã/ ~ /hә thã/ 'by hand' /zalປnI mәrdәnI sudho/ ~ /zalẽ mәrdẽ/ 'along with women and men' /ghәrә khã/ ~ /ghәrã/ 'form the house'
Semantically pronouns are substituted for the nouns. Their number is very limited in the language.
All the pronouns can be divided into eight groups: personal demonstrative, specific demonstrative, indefinite, interrogative, reflective, relative and co-relative.
Most of the pronouns inflect according to their number and case. The inventory pronouns along with their oblique forms is given below.
(1) There is gender distinction in the third person / demonstrative, specific demonstrative, indefinite, interogative (animate), relative and correlative when they occur in singular direct form. There is no gender distinction in other pronoun forms.
Examples: /hi mastәrປ ahe/ 'He is a teacher' /hiә mastәryaņi ahe/ 'she is a lady teacher' /Iho műhĨjo kItabປ ahe/ 'This (particular) is my book'. /Iha hປnәji kapi ahe/ 'This (particular) is his note book'. /ko bՙahIrI vәղe pYo/ 'some body (m) is going out'. /ka kәmIre mẽ vei/ 'Some body ( f ) went in the room. /hu kerປ ahe/ 'who is he?' /huә kerә ahe/ 'who is she?'
/jo kәmIre mẽ veţho ahe so hປnәjo bhaປ ahe/ '(A person) who is sitting in the room is his brother'
/ja klasә mẽ paŗhe pei sa asãJi mastәrYaņi ahe/
'(A lady) who is teaching in the class is our teacher'.
(2). The inanimate interrogative /cha/ is identical in all the cases.
(3). The first and second person possessives and reflective possessive are expressed by /mŰhĨ-/, /tŰhĨ-/ and /pә๊hĨ-/ respectively followed by the postposition /J-gender-number-case marker/.
/mŰhĨJo/ my ; /tŰhĨjo/ 'your (sg)', /pә๊hĨjo/ 'own'
Other possessives are expressed by the regular oblique forms followed by postposition /J-gender- number-case maker.
/әsãjo/ 'our', /tәvhãjo/ 'yours (pl.)'
/hປnәjo/ 'his/her' /hປnәnIjo/ 'their'
At the morphological level the pronominal suffix type construction is one of the main peculiarities of the Sindhi language.
A pronoun phase can be optionally dropped adding pronominal suffix to nouns (only some singular kinship terms), postposition or verbs. In other word a pronominal suffix is a substitute for a pronoun phrase.
Examples: Pronoun Phase Pronominal suffix /mŰhĨjo ghoţປ / ~/ ghoţәmI/ 'my husband' /tŰhĨjo ghoţປ / ~/ ghoţәhĨ/ 'your husband' /hປnәjo ghoţປ / ~/ ghoţәsI/ 'her husband' /hປnә khe / ~/ khәsI/ 'to him /her' /hປnәnI khe / ~ / khәnI/ 'to them' /mű vәţI kItabu ahe/ ~ /kItabປ әthәmI/ 'I have a book' /mű әmbປ kha ahe/ ~ /әmbປ khadhປmI/ 'I ate a mango'
The pronominal suffix type constructions are not discussed in detail in this chapter.
Adjectives are a sub-class of nominals which qualify nouns and pronouns.
Structurally adjectival stems may be divided into two groups: simple and complex monomorphomic roots which can stand themselves. one called simple stems as /sປţho/ 'good' and /hošyarປ/ 'clever' etc. complex adjectival stems are formed through derivation, composition and reduplication; as /gປlabi/ 'rosy', /khປlyәlປ/ 'opened', /bәģປlo bhәģәtປ/ 'hypocrite' and /gәrmagәrәmປ/ 'very hot'
Semantically the adjectives may be divided into three sub-classes: Adjectives of quality, Adjectives of quantity and Adjectives of identity.
They add some quality to the nouns; as /sປţho chokIro/ 'good boy' and /xәrabປ sәI/ 'bad thing'. etc.
They indicate the quantity of the nouns /thoro khirປ/ 'a little milk' /ghәղo kItabә/ 'many books'
The cardinal numeral are also a part of these adjectives. Structurally the following cardinals are monomorphomic.
/hIkປ/ 'l' , /bՙә/ '2', /ţe/ '3', /carI/ '4' /pәրjә/ '5', /chәhә/ '6', /sәtә/ '7', /әţhә/ '8' /nәvә/ '9', /ḍՙәhә/ '10' /sכ/ 'hundred' /hәzarປ/'1000' /lәkhປ/ '1 00 000' /kIroŗປ/ '10 million' /әrәbປ/ '1000 million' /khәrәbປ/ '1 00 000 million'. Other cardinals are composite forms, which are given below. /yarәhә๊/ '11' /bՙarәhә๊/ '12' /terәhә๊/ '13' /coḍՙәhә๊/ '14' /pәndrәjә๊/ '15' /sorәhә๊/ '16' /sәtrәhә๊/ '17' /әrIŗhә๊/ '18' /ປղvihә/ '19' /vihә/ '20' /ekihә/ '21' /bՙavihә/ '22' /ţevihә/ '23' /covihә/ '24' /pәnjປvihә/ '25' /chәvihә/ '26' /sәtavihә/ '27' /әţhavihә/ '28' /ປղәţihә/ '29' /ţihә/ '30' /ekәţihә/ '31' /bՙәţihә/ '32' /ţeţehә/ '33' /coţihә/ 34' /pәրjәţihә/ 35' /chәţihә/ '36' /sәtәţihә/ '37' /әţhәţihә/ '38' /ປղetalihә/ '39' /calihә/ '40' /eketalihә/ '41' /bՙaetalihә/ '42' /ţetalihә/ '43' /coetalihә/ '44' /pәրjetalihә/ '45' /chaetalihә/ '46' /sәtetalihә/ '47' /әţhetalilә/ '48' /ປրvәրjahປ/ '49' /pәրjahປ/ '50' /ekvәրjahປ/ '51' /bՙavәրjahປ/ '52' /ţevәրjahປ/ '53' /covәրjahປ/ '54' /pәրjvәրjahປ/ '55' /chavәրjahປ/ '56' /sәtປvәրjahປ/ '57' /әţhປvәրjahປ/ '58' /ປղәhәţhI/ '59' /sәţhI/ '60' /ekәhәţhI/ '61' /bՙahәţhI/ '62' /ţehәthI/ '63' /cohәţhI/ '64' /pәրJәhәţhI/ '65' /chahәţhI/ '66' /sәtәhaţhI/ '67' /әţhәhәţhI/ '68' /ປղәhәtәrI/ '69' /sәtәrI/ '70' /әkәhәtәrI/ '71' /bՙahәtәrI/ '72' /ţehәtәrI/ '73' /cohәtәrI/ '74' /pәրjәhәtәrI/ '75' /chahәtәrI/ '76' /sәtәhәtәrI/ '77' /әţhәhәtәrI/ '78' /ປղasi/ '79' /әsi/ '80' /ekasi/ '81' /bՙyasi/ '82' /ţIyasi/ '83' /corasi/ '84' /pәրjasi/ '85' /unanәve/ '86' /sәtasi/ '87' /әţhasi/ '88' /ປղanәve/ '89' /nәve/ '90' /ekanәve/ '91' /bՙyanәve/ '95' /chәhanәve/ '96' /sәtanәve/ '97' /әţhanәve/ '98' /nәvanәve/ '99'.
The composite cardinals are formed with morphophonemic changes which are not analyzed in this chapter.
Above hundred numerals are proceeded as; /hIkປ sכ ţe/ '103' and /ţe hәzәrә b̉ә sכ pәրjetalihә/ '32 45' etc.
The following fractionals are monomorphomic. /paປ/ ' ¼ ' /әdhປ/ ' ½ ' /mປno/ ' ¾ ' /sәva/ ' 1 ¼ ' and /әdhai/ '2 ½ ', other fractionals are formed with the help of /sәva/ 'and a quarter' /saḍha/ 'and a half' and /pכղa/ 'less by a quarter'.
/pכղab̉ә/ ' 1 ¾ ' /sәva b̉ә/ '2¼' /pכղa ţe/ '2¾' /sәva ţe/ '3¼ ' and /saḍha ţe/ '3½' etc.
Same system is used in denoting fractions of hundred, thousand and ten million etc.
/sәva sכ/ '125' /әḍhai hәzarә/ '2500'
/saḍha te lәkhә/ '3,50,000' etc.
The suffix /-i/ is added to a numeral to form aggregatives.
/b̉әi/ 'both' , /ţәi/ 'all the three', /carәi/ all the four' and /pәրjәi/ 'all the five' etc.
The suffixes /-ko/ and /-ro/ are used to form the approximate collectives. Examples:
/ḍՙәhako/ 'approximately ten' /viharo/ 'approximately twenty' /ţiharo/ 'approximately thirty' etc.
The indefinite numeral which may be called multidinouns are formed by adding the suffix /-ẽ/ to numeral. Examples:
/sәvẽ/ 'hundreds' and /hәzarẽ/ 'thousands' etc.
The multiplicatives are formed by adding the suffix /űղo/ to a numeral. Examples: /b̉ino/ 'double' /ţino/ 'three fold' /cәűղo/ 'four fold' and /pәրjűղo/ 'five fold' etc.
The adjectives of identity are mainly constituted by ordinal numerals and pronominal adjectives. The ordinals are derived from cardinals by adding the suffix /-õ/.
/pәhIrYõ/ 'first' /b̉yõ/ 'second' /tIyõ/ 'third' /cothõ/ 'fourth' /pәրjõ/ 'fifth' and /chәhõ/ 'sixth' etc.
When there is a compound numeral the last form takes ordinal marker. Examples: /b̉ә sכ sәtvanjahõ/ '257th'.
Almost all the pronouns may function as adjectives also. Examples:
/hi kItabປ/ 'this book' /Ihә kapi/ 'this (particular) note book' /műhĨjo dostປ/ 'my friend' /ko chokIro/ 'some boy' /jo choIri/ 'the girl who'.
On the basis of inflectional name, the Sindhi adjectives can be divided into two groups: declinable and indeclinable.
All the /-o/ ending adjectives are declinable. They inflect according to the gender and case of the followed noun. Examples:
Dir obl /sປţho chokIro/ 'good boy' /sປţhe chokire khe/ 'to the good boy' /sປţha chokIro/ 'good boys' /sປţhәnI chokIrәnI khe/ 'to the good boys' /sປţhi chokIri/ 'good girl' /sປţhiә chokIriә khe/ 'to the good girl' /sປţhyű chokIryű/ 'good girls' /sປţhyປnI chokIryປnI khe/ 'to the good girls' Ordinals from 1 to 48 inflect according to the followed nouns. Example: Dir obl /hIkປ chokIro/ 'one boy' /hIkә chokire khe/ 'to noe boy' /hIkә chokIri/ 'one girl' /hIkә chokIrә khe/ 'to noe girl' /bՙә ghәrә/ 'two houses' /bՙInI ghInI ghәrәnI mẽ/ 'in two houses' /pәրjә kapyű/ 'five note books' /pәրjәnI kapyປnI mẽ/ 'in five note books'
The ordinals are always used in singular form and one inflected according to the gender and case of the followed noun.
Dir obl /sәtõ mәhIno/ '7th month' /sәtẽ mәhIne mẽ/ 'in the 7th month' /sәtĩ qәtarә/ '7th line' /sәtiә๊ qәtarә mẽ/ 'in the 7th line'
The multiplicatives are also inflected according to the followed nouns. Examples:
Dir obl /cәűņo kәpIŗo/ 'four fold cloth' /cәűņe kәpIŗe mẽ/ 'in the four fold cloth' /cәűņI cadәrә/ 'four fold bed sheet' /cәűņİә chadәrә mẽ/ 'in the four fold bed sheet'.
On the pattern of pronouns the pronominal adjectives are also inflected. Examples:
Dir obl /hu chokIro/ 'that boy' /ḥປ ә chokire khe/ 'to that boy' /әsãjo dostປ/ 'our friend' /әsãje dostә khe/ 'to our friend' /ka כrәtә/ 'some woman' /kәhĨ כrәtә khe/ 'to some woman'
When the present and past participles are used as adjectives they are inflected according to the followed nouns. Examples:
/hәlәndi bәsI/ 'moving bus' /khປlyәlu dәrປ/ 'opened door'
/khປlyәlә dәri/ әrә/dәryű/. /khປlyәlә/ dәriә/dәrәnI/ 'opened window/doors/'windows'
/hәlәndiә bәsI mẽ/ 'in the moving bus' /khປlyәlә dәrә vәţI/ 'near the opened door' dәryປnI vәţI/ 'near the opened window/doors/windows'.
All other adjectives are indeclinable. Examples:
Dir: /hošyarປ chokIro/chokIra/ chokIri /chokIryű/ 'clear boy /boys /girl/ girls'
Obl: /hošyasປ chokIre/chokIrәnI/ chokIrIә /chokIryປnI khe/ 'to the clear boy /boys /girl/ girls'
Dir: /pәրjahປ mәrdә/ כrәtű/ 'fifty men/ women'
Obl: /pәրjahປ mәrdәnI/ כrәtປnI khe/ 'to fifty men/ women'
Degrees of comparision in Sindhi are generally discussed though the syntactic constructions with the help of postposition /khã/.
There are three degrees of comparision: positive, comparative and superlative.
126.96.36.199.1. Positive degree.
The positive degree of an adjective is the adjective in its simple form which is used without any comparision; i.e. /sປţho chokIro/ 'a good boy'.
188.8.131.52.4.1 Comparative degree.
The comparative degree of an adjective denotes a higher degree of the quality than the positive and is used when two things or persons are compared; i.e.
/hປnә khã vәḍ̉o/ 'elder than him'
184.108.40.206.4.3. Superlative degree:
The superlative degree of an adjective denotes the highest of the; i.e.
/sәbhIni khã vәḍ̉o/ 'eldest'
In a few cases degree is also express though separate words; i.e.
/sປţho/ 'good', /bәhItәrປ/ 'better' /bәhItәrinປ/ 'best'.
In Sindhi, verbals are a large and open-ended class of stems.
220.127.116.11. Structural Formation of verbal stems.
The Sindhi verbal stems may be monomorphomic or polymorphemic.
A monomorphemic verbal stems is having only one morpheme which is identical with the verb root; i.e. /әכ-/ '(to) come' and /lIkh-/ '(to) write'.
A polymorphemic verb stems is a derived or composite verb stem.
18.104.22.168.2.1. Derived verb stems.
They are from neutral verb roots, simple verb stems and other derived verb stems.
22.214.171.124.2.1.1. Verb stems derived from neutral verb roots.
The derived intransitive verb stems are formed by adding the intransitive marker /-k/ to a limited number of neutral verb roots; i.e. /phәŗk/ '(to) flutter' and /ţim-k/ '(to) twinkle' etc. It is worth noting that most of the roots which form the derived intransitive verb stems are onomatopoetic forms.
126.96.36.199.2.1.2. Verb stems derived from simple verb stems:
Generally the derived transitive verb stems are formed from the intransitives by adding /-a/ or /-ar/; or replacing a vowel of the root. Examples:
Intransitives transitives /gປm-/ '(to) 'visit' /gປma-/ '(to) cause to visit'. /ປth-/ '(to) getup' /ປthar-/ '(to) raise' /tәr-/ '(to) swim' /tar-/ '(to) cause to swim' /ghIŗ-/ '(to) enter' /gheŗ-/ '(to) cause to enter'
A number of single causatives are also derived from the simple verb stems. Example:
Simple verb causative /likh-/ '(to) write' /likh-a/ '(to) cause to write'
188.8.131.52.2.1.3. Verb stems derived form other derived verbs.
Most of the double causatives are derived from the other derived verb stems. Example: /likh-a-ra-/ '(to)'
184.108.40.206.2.2. Composite verb stems.
The composite verb stems may be 'formed by non-verbal + verbal or more than two verbals.
220.127.116.11.2.2.1. Non-verbal = verbal type verb stems. Noun + verb: /bhakປrປ pa-/ '(to) embrace' /sәnanປ kәr-/ '(to) bath' Adjective + verb: /thәdho thIy-/ '(to) get cold'
18.104.22.168.2.2.2 Verbal + verbal type verb stems.
The composite verbal are also formed by combining two or more verbals. In such formations generally the first element is main verb and remaining element is/are subsidiary verb/s which help/s to modify the main verb. Examples:
/bhәjՙI vәր/ '(to) run away' /lIkhәndo vәր-/ '(to) go on writing' /khaIղປ cah-/ '(to) want to eatt' /hәlyo әր-/ '(to) go away'
22.214.171.124. Finite and non-finite constructions.
On the basis of finiteness, the verbal constructions make two-fold distinction: finite and non-finite.
The finite verbal formation closes a sentence. The structure of a finite verb consists of a verb stems followed by mood, tense and aspect which may also have gender number and person markers to maintain a concord with the subject or object of the sentence.
The non-finite verbal forms cannot close a sentence. They occur as the non-finite members of compo verbs. The main types of non-finite verbal forms are discussed below:
126.96.36.199.2.1. Conjunctive. It is formed by adding /-i/ to v1 or /-e/ to v2. Examples: v1: /mã әngre żiә mẽ lIkh sәghyປsI/ 'I could write in English'. v2: /mã әngreżiә mẽ ģalhae sәghyປsI/ 'I could speak in English'. The same type of construction is also used as the absolutive. Example: Vl: /mã mәրjhәndI ji mani khai lndປsI/ 'I shall come after having my lunch'. /hu pεsa bhәre indo/ 'He will come after depositing the amount'. 188.8.131.52.2.2. Infinite. It is formed by adding /-1394;ປ/ to the verb. Example: /mã bhaປ ḍՙãhű kItabә mokIlәղປ cahyã tho/ 'I want to send books to (my) brother'.
The infinite type construction is also used as gerund (verbal noun). Example:
/pәndhປ kәrәղປ sIhәtә laI sປţho ahe/
'Walking is good for health'.
There are mainly three types of participles present, past and future.
184.108.40.206.2.3.1. Present participles.
There are two types of present participles; active and passive.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168. Present active participle.
It is formed by adding /әnd-/ for v1 or /-İnd/ for v2 to the verb which is followed by gender, number and person marker to show the agreement. Examples:
/mã hIndi sIkhәndປsI/ 'I shall learn Hindi'.
/әsĩ hIndiә mẽ ģalhaindasĩ/ 'we shall speak in Hindi'.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Present passive participle.
It is formed by adding /-Ij/ to the verb which is followed by number marker to show the agreement. Examples:
/sәbәkປ pәŗhIje tho/ A lesson is read.
/sәbәkә lIkhIjәnI tha/ Lessons are written.
188.8.131.52.2.3.2. Past participle.
The past participle is formed by adding /-y/ to the verb which may be followed by gender number and /or person markers to show the agreement. Examples:
/mã ghәrI vyປsI./ 'I went home'
/hປnә xәtປ mokIlyo ahe/ 'He has sent a letter'
/tәvhã ḍ̉ãhű xәtә mokIya venda/ 'The letter will be sent to you'.
184.108.40.206.2.3.3. Future participles.
There are two types of future participles: active and passive.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Future active participle.
It is formed adding /-ib/ to the verb which is followed by gender number marker. Examples:
/mã agre vәրIղo ahyã/ 'I (m) am going to visit Agra'.
/műkhe sכ rupәya bhәrI ahInI/ 'I have to deposit one hundred rupees'.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199. Future passive participle.
It is formed adding /-Ib/ to the verb which is followed by gender number marker. Examples:
/cI ţhi lIkhIbi/ 'a letter will be written'.
/dәrә kholIba/ 'and doors will be opened'.
The present and future active participles and past participle are also used as verbal adjectives.
Examples: /hәlәndi bәsI/ 'running bus' /khILIղi chokIri/ 'Laughing girl' /khປlyo kItabປ/ 'opened book'
188.8.131.52. Main types of verbal.
On the basis of their function in an utterance, the Sindhi verbals may be divided into two groups: copulative and non-copulative.
A copulative verbal is a non-process type verb. Its function is only to connect the subject and predicate in an utterance and express the tense and agreement. In Sindhi different forms of the verb /hປ-/ '(to) be' are used to construct the copular. These forms are given below:
184.108.40.206.1.1. Present copular: Singular plural Person 1 m/f: /ahyã/ 'am' /ahyű/ 'are' Person ll m/f: /ahĩ/ 'are' /ahyo/ 'are' Person lll m/f: /ahe/ 'is' /ahini/ 'are' There is no gender distinction in the present copular. 220.127.116.11.1.2. Past copular. Singular plural Male female male female Person l : /hosI/ 'was' /hປәsi/ 'was' /hປasĩ/ 'were' /hປyűsĩ/ 'were' Person ll: /hປẽ/ 'were' /hປiә๊/ 'were' /hປa/ 'were' /hປyű/ 'were' Person lll:/ ho/ 'was' /hປi/ 'was' /hປa/ 'were' /hປyű/ 'were'
The second and third person plural forms are identical in the past copula type construction.
18.104.22.168.1.3 Future copula. Singular Male female Person l: /hundusI/'shall be' /hundesI/ 'shall be' Person ll: /hundẽ/ 'will be' /hundiә๊/ 'will be' Person lll: /hundo/ 'will be' /hund/ 'will be' Plural Male female Person l: /hundasĩ/'shall be' /hundyűsĩ/ 'shall be' Person ll: /hunda/ 'will be' /hundyű/ 'will be' Person lll: /hunda/ 'will be' /hundyű/ 'will be'
The second and third person plural formed are identical in the future copula. It is also worth to mention that the gender number and person markers used for the copula are identical with the past copula. Examples:
Present copula: /hu mastәrປ ahe/ 'He is a teacher'.
Past copula: /kalhә әsĩ nәղḍhe ģothә mẽ hປasĩ/ 'Yesterday we were in a small village'.
Future copula: /sປbhaղe әsĩ vәḍ̉e šәhәrә mẽ hundasĩ/ 'Tomorrow we shall be in a big city'.
22.214.171.124.2. Non copulatives.
These are process type verbals. On the basis of the causativeness they may be sub grouped into three classes causative, non-causative and causative.
126.96.36.199.2.1. A causatives.
The verbs which do not have their causative counterparts in the language are called a causative. There are only a few verbals which fall into this class; /әc-/ '(to) come', /vәր-/ '(to) go' and /-cah-/ '(to) want' etc.
188.8.131.52.2.2. Non- causatives.
Basically these verbals are not causatives, but the causative forms can be derived from them. These verbs can be sub-grouped into two classes: Intransitive and intransitive. The intransitives do not give any object. Examples: /mã pәրjẽ bәje ປthando ahyã/ 'I get up at 5'0 clock (in the morning)'
/huә khIle pei/ 'she is laughing'.
The transitive may have the objective/s.
Examples: /mã xәtປ lIkhã tho/ 'I write a letter'.
/to әmbປ khadho/ 'you (sg) ate a mango'.
184.108.40.206.2.3. Causative. The causative forms are derived from the non- causatives. Examples: Non- causative causative /khIl-/ '(to) laugh' /khIl-a/ '(to) make to laugh' /lIkh-/ '(to) write' /likh-a/ '(to) cause to write' /kha-/ '(to) eat' /kha-ra/ '(to) feed' The double causatives also can be formed from these verbs. Examples: Non- causative single causative double causative /pi-/ '(to) drink' /pi-ar/ '(to) cause to drink' /pi ara ra/ '(to) cause to give for drinking' /kәr-/ '(to) do' /kәr-a-/ '(to) get done' /kәr-a-ra-/'to get done through some one'
220.127.116.11.3. Auxiliary verbals: The auxiliary verbals modify the action expressed by the main verb. They may indicate mood, tense and aspect. They constitute a small class of words. I.e. /hປ-/ '(to) be' and /sәgh-/ '(to) be able' etc.
/huә sIndhi ģalhaindi ahe/ 'she speaks Sindhi' /hu aha hປa/ 'They had come' /mã hIndiә lIkhi sәghәndປsI/ 'I shall be able to write in Hindi'.
In many cases, moods, tenses and aspects are also formed by combining the main verb with various subsidiary verbs
(The verbs which themselves can be used as main verbs as well as function as helping verbs. Examples:
Main verb: /hu ģothә mẽ rәhәndo ahe/ 'He lives in a village'.
Subsidiary verb: /hu sәbәqປ lIkhi rәhyo ahe/ 'He is writing a lesson'.
18.104.22.168.4. Verbal inflectional categories.
On the basis of their inflection, native Sindhi verbs may be classified into two groups; verb group-one (v1) and verb group two (v2). All the intransitive and passive verb stems fall into v1 category and all derived transitive and causative verbs stems fall into v2 category. The basic transitive verb stems may fall in to v1 to v2. There is no fixed rule to classify these verb stems to group in v1 or v2.
22.214.171.124.4.1. Main verbal patterns.
The main verbal pattern on the basis of mood, tense and aspects are given below.
Mood indicates the manner of action. There are three types of mood in the language: Imperative, optative and indicative.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Imperative mood.
In Sindhi the imperative mood is conjugated in two tense present and future. In these constructions the subject in second person occur in direct form and the verb agrees with it. There is no gender distraction in these constructions.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1. Present imperative.
It has two sets of suffixes which are added to the verb stems according to their verb group 1 or 2.
Examples: V1: /tű xәtປ lIkhປ/ 'you (sg) write a letter' /tәvhĩ xәtә lIkho/ 'you (pl) write letters'. V2: /tű cãhI kaŗhI/ 'you (sg) prepare tea'. /tәvhĩ cãhI kaŗhyo/ 'you (pl) prepare tea'.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Future imperative.
There is no V1 and V2 distinction in the future imperative construction. The verb stem takes /-IjI/ for singular second person and /-Ijo/ for plural second person. Examples:
V1 /tű sປbhaղe әcIjI/ 'you (sg) come tomrrow'
/tәvhĩ sumәyә ḍ̉ihű әcIjo/ 'you (pl) come on Monday'.
V2 /tű pәrĩhә๊ kapi ḍ̉ekharIjI/ 'you (sg) show (your) note book day after tomorrow'.
/tәvhĩ jປme ḍ̉ihű pεsa bhgrIjo/ 'you (pl.) deposit the amount on Friday'
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52. Optative mood.
To form the optative, the following suffix denoting person-number markers to the subject are added to the verb according to the V1 or V2 . There is no distinction of gender in the optative mood.
|Person l sg. M/f:||-ã||-yã|
|Person l pl. M/f:||-ű||-yű|
|Person ll sg. M/f:||-ĩ||-ĩ|
|Person ll pl. M/f:||-o||-yo|
|Person lll sg. M/f:||-e||-e|
|Person lll pl. M/f:||-ә||-I|
V1 V2 /mã bՙahIrI vәրã/ 'I may go out' /mã cãhI kaŗhyã/ 'I may prepare tea'. /әsĩ gharI vәրű/'we may go home'./әsĩ cãhI kaŗhyű/'we may prepare tea' /tű xәtປlIkhĩ/'you(sg) may write letter'/tű dәrປ kholĩ/'you(sg) may open the door'. /tәvĩ ປtho/'you(pl) may get up'/tәvhĩdәrә kholyo/ 'you(pl) may open the doors'. /hu hIte әcә/ 'He may come here' /huә pεsa bhәre/ 'she may deposit the amount' /hu hIte әcәnI/ 'They may come here' /hu pεsa bhәrinI/ 'They may deposit the amount'
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11. Indicative mood. Indicative mood has three tenses present, past and future, and three main aspects: Indefinite, continuous and perfect.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1. Indefinite present tense. It has compound formation; the main verb takes the optative type suffix along tuyű (plf) according to the number-gender of the direct subject. Examples:
Male female V1: /mã hIndi sIkhã tho/ /mã әxbarә pәŗhã thi/ 'I learn Hindi' 'I read a newspaper'. /әsĩ bՙahIrI vәnű tha/ /әsĩ klasә mẽ әcű thyű/ 'we go out' 'we come in the class' /tű xәtປ lIkhĩ tho/ /tű әmbປ khaĩ thi/ 'you (sg) write a letter' 'you(sg) eat a mango' /tәvhĩ cãhI pio tha/ /tәvhĩ mIţhai khao thyű./ 'you(pl) drink tea' 'you(pl) eat sweet' /hu kItabປ pәŗhe tho/ /huә nәdİә mẽ tәre thi/ 'He reads a book' 'she swims in the river' /hu sປvalә pປchәnI tha/ /hu jәvabә ḍՙIyәnI thyű/ 'They ask questions' 'They give answers'. V2: male female /mã dәrປ kholyã tho/ /mã dәri bәndI kәryã thi/ 'I open the door' 'I close the window' /әsĩ sIndhi ģalhayű tha/ /әsĩ cãhI khŗhyű thyű/ /tű hIndi paŗhi tho/ /tű phປlko pәcaĩ thi/ 'you(sg) teach Hindi' 'you(sg) prepare chapati' /tәvhĩ kIrketi randi kәryo tha/ /tәvhĩ gitә ģayo thyű./ 'you (pl) play cricket' 'you (ol) sing songs' /hu pεsa bhәre tho/ /huә kItabә aղe thi/ 'He pays the amount' 'she brings books' /hu sukhIŗI mokIlinI tha/ /hu randika dՙekharinI thyű/ 'They send a gift' 'they show toys'
In the interrogative or negative indefinite the auxiliary verb occurs before the main verb. Examples:
/tű cha tho kәrĩ/ /hu nә tho ģalhae/ 'what do you do' 'He does not speak'.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2. Continuous present tense. The pattern of continuous present is identical with the indefinite present and only the auxiliary verb tho/ tha/thi/thyű is replaced by /pyo /pya /pei / peyű/ respectively. Examples:
Male female /mã kItabປ pәŗhã pyo/ /mã akhaղi likhã pei/ 'I am reading a book' 'I am writing a story' /tәvhĩ cha pya kәryo/ /әsĩ ghәrI vәրű peyű/ 'what are you (pl) doing' 'we are going home'
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3. Indefinite past tense.
At the syntactic level the past tense type constructions can be divided into two types: Intransitive and transitive. The indefinite past is formed by adding the past participle marker /-y/ to the verb. The intransitive verb agrees with the subject (direct case) and takes its gender-number and person marker similar to past copula (the). The transitive verb takes gender-number marker of the direct object and subject occurs in the oblique form without any postposition. No auxiliary verb is used in the indefinite past. All the suffixes are added to the verb only. There is no distinction of V1 and V2 in there constructions. Examples: Intransitive verb:
Male Female /mã ayປsI/ 'I came' /mã ayәsI/ 'I came' /әsĩ ayasĩ/ 'we came' /әsĩ ayũsĩ/ 'we came' /tũ mປmbәI ghປmIẽ/ 'you (sg) /tũ mປmbәĩ gປmiә๊/ 'you (sg) visited Mumbai' visited Mumbai' /tәvhĩ derIsã aya/ 'you (pl) /tevhĩ derIsã ayũ/ 'you (pl) came came late' late' /hu desI sã ປthyo/ 'He got up late' /huә derIsã ປthi/ 'she got up late' /hu kalhә aya/ 'They came /hu kalhә ayũ/ 'They came yesterday'. yesterday' Transitive verb: Male female /mũ sәbәqປ likhyo/ /to akhaղi pәŗhi/ 'I wrote a lesson' 'you (sg) read a story' /chokire xәtә mokIlya/ /chokIryປnI kapyũ ḍՙInyũ/ 'The boy sent letters' 'The girls gave notebooks'.
When the direct object is absent or not known in contact, the verb is used in neutral form and takes the third person singular marker. Examples:
/to cha likayo/ 'what did you (sg) hide?'
/hປnә cәyo/ 'He said'
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.4. Continuous past tense.
The auxiliary verb /pIe/ is used with the indefinite past type construction to form the past tense. Examples:
/mã ayປsI pIe/ 'I (m) was a coming'. /chokIryũ ḍoŗyũ pIe/ 'The girls were running'. /to dәrປ kholyo pIe/ 'you (sg) were opening the door'. /šagIrdәnI sәbәqປ lIkhyo pIe/ 'The students were writing a lesson'.
In the interrogative negative type sentences, generally the auxiliary verb occur before the main verb. Examples:
/to cha pIe kәyo/ 'what was you doing?'
/hປnә konә pIe lIkhyo/ 'He was not writing?'
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.5. Indefinite future tense.
The formatting of indefinite future is identical with the indefinite past (Intransitive except the past participle /-y/ is replaced by the present participle /-әnd/ for V2: or /ind/ for V2. There is no distinction between intransitive and transitive verbs in the future constructions. Examples:
V1: male female /mã sIndhi sIkhәndປsI/ /mã hIndi sIkhәndәsI/ 'I shall learn Sindhi' 'I shall learn Hindhi' /әsĩ puno ghປmәndasĩ/ /әsĩ dehli ghປmәndyũsĩ/ 'we shall visit pune' 'we shall visit Dilhi' /tũ hIte rәhәndẽ/ /tũ hປte rәhәndiә๊/ 'you (sg) will stay here' 'you (sg) will stay there' /tәvhĩ vәqtә te pәhປchәnda/ /tәvhĩ derI sã pәhປchәndyũ/ 'you (pl) will reach in time' 'you (pl) will reach in late' /hu әsã sã hәlәndo/ /huә әsã sã hәlәndi/ 'He will come with us' 'she will come with us' /hu hune je bare mẽ bՙປdhainda/ /hũ ghәղa sປvalә pປchәndyũ/ 'They will inform about him' 'They will ask many questions'. V1: /mã hປnәnI sã ģalhaindປsI/ 'I(m) shall speak with them' /әsĩ kItabә mokIlİndyũ sĩ/ 'we (f) shall send the books'.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.6. Continuous future tense. The auxiliary verb /pyo/ (m. sg), /pya/ (m.pl), /pei/ (f. sg) or /peyũ is used with the indefinite future type construction to express the continuous future tense. Examples:
Male female /mã lIkhәndປsI pyo/ /mã pәŗhәndәsI pei/ 'I shall be writing' 'I shall be reading' /әsĩ panә mẽ ģalhaindasĩ pya/ /tәvhĩ git ģaindyũ peyũ/ 'we shall be speaking with each other' 'you will be singing a song'
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.7. Present /past /future perfect tense.
For the formatting of perfect tense the main verb takes the past participle marker /-y/ which is followed by the gender-number marker of the direct subject (if the verb is transitive or the direct object) . In the case of transitive verb the subject is used in the oblique form without any postposition. The different forms of the verb /hປ-/ (to) are used as the auxiliary verb according to the tense. Examples.
Intransitive verb: Male female /mã vyo ahyã/ hosI/ hundປsI/ /mã ai ahya/ hປәsI/ hundәsI/ 'I have /had /shall have gone' 'I have /had /shall have come' /әsĩ vya ahyũ hປasĩ /hundasĩ/ /әsĩ ayũ ahyũ/ hປhyũ sĩ /hປndyũsĩ/ 'we have /had /shall have gone' 'we have /had /shall have come' /tũ vyo ahĩ /hປẽ/ hundẽ/ /tũ ai ahĩ /hປiә๊/ hundiә๊/ 'you(sg) have/had/will have gone' 'you(sg) have/had/will have come' /tәvhĩvya ahyo/ hປa/hunda/ /tәvhĩ ayũ ahyo/hປyũ/hundyũ/ 'you(pl) have/had/will have gone' 'you(pl) have/had/will have come' /hu pәhປto ahe /ho /hundo/ /huә pәhປti ahe /hປi/hundi/ 'He has /had /will have reached' 'she has /had /will have reached' /hu pәhປta ahInI /hປa/ hunda/ /hu pәhປtyũ ahInI/ hປyũ/hundyũ/ 'They have /had/will have reached' 'They have /had/will have reached' Transitive verb: /to kәmປ puro kәyo ahe /ho/ hundo/ 'you (sg) have /had/ will have completed the work' /hປnә pεsa mokIlya ahInI /hປa/ hunda/ 'he has /have/will have sent the money' /radha sukhIŗI mokIli ahe /hປi /hundi/ 'Radha has /had/ will have sent a gift'. /šagrIdәnI akhaղyũ pәŗhyũ ahInI /hປyũ/ hundyũ/ 'The students have /had /will have read the stories'.
The future perfect type pattern is also used to express the perfect dubitative. Examples:
/huә gәrI pәhປti hundi/ 'she might have reached home'.
/tәvhã Iho kItabປ pәŗhyo hundo/ 'you (pl) might have read this book'.
126.96.36.199.4.1.2. Some other patterns:
The formation of some other common patterns is given below.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Habitual present /past /future tense:
The formation of habitual tenses is identical to the perfect intransitive type pattern except the past participle marker /-y/ is replaced by the present participle marker /-әnd/ for V1 and /-ind/ for V2. There is no distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs. Examples:
V1: /mã pәրjẽ bәje ປthәndo ahyã /hosI /hundປsI/ I (m) get up /used to get up /shall be getting up at 5'o clock. /tәvhĩ sIndhi sIkhәnda ahyo/ hປa/ hunda/ 'you (m.pl.) learn/ used to learn /will be learning Sindhi' /hũә mປmbәiә kha indi ahe /hປi/ hundi/ 'she comes /used to come /will be coming from Mumbai' /hu kәpIŗa sIbgndyũ ahInI /hປyũ /hundyũ/ They (f) stitch /used to stitch/ will be stitching clothes. V2: /hu sປţha naţәkә dՙekarindo ahe /ho/ hundo/ 'He shows /used to show /will be showing good dramas'. /tәvhĩ әngrezi sekharinda ahyo/ hປa/ hunda/ 'you (pl.m.) teach /used to teach/ will be teaching English'. /huә sIndhi girә ģaindi ahe /hປi /hundi/ 'she sings /used to sing /will be singing Sindhi songs'. /hu lokә kәthaũ bՙປdhaindyũ ahInI /hປyũ /hundyũ/ They (f) narrate /used to narrate /will be narrating folk tales.
The future habitual type pattern is also used to express the present dubitative. Example: /tũ socindo hundẽ/ 'you (m sg) might be thinking'.
220.127.116.11.4.2.2. Potential present /past/future tense. For the formation of present potential the main verb takes the conjunctive /-i/ for V1: or /-e/ for V2 and the auxiliary verb /sәgh-/ '(to) be able' takes person-number marker followed by the auxiliary verb tho/ tha /thi/ or thyu/ used for the indefinite present. Examples:
V1: /mã tәri sәghã tho/ 'I (m) can swim'. /әsi tәvã sã hәli sәghũ tha/ 'we (m) can come with you'. /tũ miţhai khai sәghi thi/ 'you (sg.f) can eat sweet'. /tәvhĩ gәrI vәրi sәgho thyũ/ 'you (pl.f.) cango home'. V2: /huә әngreji sekhare sәghe thi/ 'she can teach English'. /hu asã khe bՙປdhae sәghәnI tha/ 'They can tell us'.
For the potential past or future also the main verb takes /-i/ or /-e/ and the auxiliary verb lakes all the markers similar to the indefinite (intr) and future patterns. Examples:
(1) potential past: /mã vәqtә te pәhປci sәghyປsi/ 'I (m) could reach in time'. /huә karI hәlae sәghi/ 'she could drive car'. (2) Potential future: /әsĩ taj mәhәlປ ḍՙIsi sәghәndasĩ/ 'we (m) shall be able to see the Tajmahal'. /tũ hປnәnI khe paŗhe sәghәndiә๊/ 'you (sg f) will be able to teach them'.
18.104.22.168.4.2.3. Conditional present /past /future.
The conditional sentences are formed by conditional connectors /je-tә/ 'if than'. The present conditional is formed with the help of the optative pattern. Examples: /je hu pәŗhe tә mã likhã/ 'if he reads I shall write'.
The past conditional is also formed with the help of the optative type pattern which is followed by the auxiliary verb /hã/.
Example: /je hu ace hã tә әsĩ xປshI thyũ hã/ 'If he had come, we would have felt happy'.
The future conditional is expressed by combining two simple future tense type sentences with the help of the conditional connectors.
Examples: /huә indi tә mã xປšI thindປsI/ If he comes I shallfeel happy.
22.214.171.124.4.2.4. Prospective present /past/ future:
The prospective pattern is formed by adding the futurative participle /-Iղ/ suffixed by gender-number marker to the main verb which is followed by the auxiliary verb identical with the copula to show the tense agreement.
(i) Intransitive verb: For the formation of intransitive prospective, the subject is used in the direct form and verb agrees with it. Examples:
/mã dehIliә vәրiղi ahyã/ hປәsI/ hundәsi/ 'I (f) am/ was/ shall be going to visit Delhi'.
(ii) Transitive verb: If the verb is transitive, the subject is used in the oblique form followed by the postposition /khe/ and the verb agrees with the direct object. Examples: /hປnә khe kປrsi vәţhIղi ahe/ hui/ hundi/ 'He has/ had/ would have to purchase a chair'. The above transitive pattern is also used for the obligatory construction.
In the case of the intransitive verb the subject is in the oblique form followed by the postposition /khe/ and verb is used in the neutral form which is identical with the masculine singular third person pattern. Examples: /әsã khe dehIliә vәրIղo ahe/ ho/ hundo/ 'we have /had/ should have to go to Delhi'.
For the formation of suggestive constructions the subject is used in the oblique form followed by the postposition /khe/ and the main verb is used in the infinitive form which is followed by the auxiliary verb /khәp-/ '(to) want'
in the singular or plural form according the direct object. Examples:
/tәvhã khe Iho kItabປ pәŗhәղປ khәpe/ 'you (pl) should read this book'.
/hປnә khe sכ rupәya jәma kәtaIղປ khәpәnI/ 'he should deposite one hundred rupees'.
The intransitive verb instruction is formed in the neutral pattern. Examples: /tәvhã khe pәրjẽ bәjae ປthәղປ khәpe/ 'you (pl) shouls get up at 5 o'clock'.
Sindhi has two voices: active and passive the active voice indicates that subject does something or becoming something and the passive voice represents the subject as acted upon. The act voice has three types of construction: subjectival, objectival and neutral. Examples:
(l) Subjectival: /mã әxbarә pәŗhã tho/ 'I read a newspaper'. (ll) Objectival: /to chokIri ḍՙIţhi/ 'you (sg) saw the girl'. (lll) Neutral: /mũ cәyo/ 'I said'.
But the passive voice has two types of constructions: objectival and impersonal. The main type of passive constructions are given below:
(l) Suggestive passive: The suggestive passive is formed with the help of the passive marker /-Ij/ which is followed by the number marker.
(i) Objectival (tr verb): /kItabປ jәma kәraIje/ 'The book should be submitted'. /kapyũ jәma kәraIJәnI/ 'The note books should be submitted'. (ii) Impersonal (intr verb): /sປbປhә jo sәverә ປthIje/ 'one should get up early in the morning'. In the suggestive passive type constructions, usually the subject is absent.
(2) Indefinite present passive.
For the indefinite present passive the main verb takes same markers which are used for the suggestive passive along with the auxiliary verb /tho/ (m.sg) /tha/ (mpl), /thi/ (f.sg) or /thyũ/ (f.pl) according to the gender and number of the objects. Examples:
(i) Objectival: (tr verb) /xәtປ mokIlije tho/ 'A letter is sent'. /xәtә mokIljәnI tha/ 'The letters are sent'. /dәrxvastә mokIlIje thi/ 'An application is sent'. /dәrxvastũ mokIlIjәnI thyũ/ 'The applications are sent'. (ii) Impersonal (intr verb): /sәverә ປţhIje tho/ 'one gets up early (in the morning)'
In Sindhi the indefinite passive is also expressed by compound verb. The main verb is used in the past participle form and the subsidiary verb /vәր-/ '(to) go' which is followed by /tho/, /tha/, /thi/ or /thyũ/. In such construction transitive verb agrees with the object and has neutral pattern. Examples:
(i) Objectival (tr verb): /xәtປ likhyo vәրe tho/ 'A letter is written'. /kItabә mokIlya vәրәnI tha/ 'The books are sent'. /әxbarә pәŗhi vәրe thi/ 'The newspaper is read'. /kapyũ ḍՙinyũ vәրәրI thyũ/ 'Note books are given'. (ii) Impersonal (intr verb): /mũ khã hәlyo nә tho vәրe/ 'I cannot walk (lit. It cannot be, walked by me)'.
(3) Indefinite past passive: It has the similar compound verb type pattern used for the indefinite present except the subsidiary verb/ vәր/ is used in the past form. Examples:
(1) Objectival (tr verb): /kItabປ mokIlyo vyo/ 'A books was sent'. /kItabә mokIlya vya/ 'The books were sent'. /kapi mokIli vei/ 'A note book was sent'. /kapyũ mokIlyũ veyũ/ 'The note books were sent'. (ii) Impersonal (Intr verb): /әsã khã khIlyo nә vyo/ 'we could not laugh (lit. It could not be laughed by us)'.
(4) Indefinite future passive: It is formed by the future passive participle /-Ib/ which is followed by the gender number marker. Examples
(i) Objectival (tr verb): /әmbປ khabo/ 'A mango will be eaten'. /әmbә khaIba/ 'Mangoes will be eaten'. /narәngi khaIbi/ 'An orange will be eaten'. /narәngyũ khaIbyũ/ 'Oranges will be eaten'. (ii) /mປmbәiә hәlIbo/ 'Mumbai will be visited'.
Like indefinite present the indefinite feline is also expressed with the help of the subsidiary verb /vәր/ '(to) go'. Examples:
/xәtປ mokilyo vәndo/ 'A letter will be sent'. /mũ khã hәlyo nә vendo/ 'It will not be possible for me to walk'.
(5) Habitual present /past/ future passive: It is formed with the help of future passive participle which is followed by the different forms of auxiliary verb /hປ-/ '(to) be' to show the tense and agreement.
(i) Objectival (tr verb):
/sIndhi gitປ ģaIbo ahe/ ho/ hundo/ 'A Sindhi song is/was/ will be sung'.
/sufә khaIba ahInI/ hປa/ hunda/ 'Apples are/were/ will be eaten'.
/mIţhai aղIbi ahe/ hປi/ hundi/ 'sweet is/was/ will be brought'.
/karũ hәlaIbyũ ahInI/ hປyũ/ hundyũ/ 'Cars are /were/ will be driven'.
(ii) Impersonal (Intr verb):
/sәverә ປthIbo ahe/ ho/ hundo/ 'one gets up /got up/ will getup early (in the morning)'.
It is worth to mention that the /-Ib/ type construction is always used in the predicative sentences. In other words it is not possible to use any subject in such pattern.
The habitual passive also can be formed with the help of the subsidiary verb /vәր-/ '(to) go'. Examples:
/sindhi gitә gaya venda ahInI /hປa/ hunda/ 'Sindhi songs are /were/ will being sung'. /mIţhayũ vIrhayũ vәndyũ ahinI /hປyũ/ hundyũ/ 'Sweets are /were/ will being distributed'.
Adjuncts are a class of words which are amplifying part of a sentence. They generally do not enter into the morphological constructions. Its five main groups are: adverbs, particles, postposition, conjunction and interjections.
126.96.36.199 Adverbs: They restrict the signification of verbs modifying them. They also qualify another adverbs.
188.8.131.52.1 Main types of adverbs: semantically the Sindhi adverbs can be classified into five groups: temporal adverbs, locational adverbs, directional adverbs, adverbs of manner and adverbs of degree.
184.108.40.206.1.1 Temporal adverbs: These indicate the time of action. Examples:
/әj̉ປ/ 'today', /kәḍ̉әhĩ/ 'when', /haղe/ 'now' and /rozປ/ 'daily'. Etc.
220.127.116.11.1.2 Locational adverbs: These indicate the place of action. Examples:
/kIthe/ 'where', /hIte/ 'here', /hປte/'there' /vejho/ 'near' and /pәre/ 'away' etc.
18.104.22.168.1.3 Directional adverbs: These indicate the direction of action. Examples:
/keḍ̉ãhũ/ 'where in which direction', /heḍ̉ãhũ/ 'here, in this direction' and /hoḍ̉ãhũ/ 'there, in that direction' etc.
22.214.171.124.1.4. Adverbs of manner: these indicate the manner of action. Examples:
/kiә๊/ 'how' /hiә๊/ 'in this manner, like this' and
/huә๊/ 'in that manner, like that' etc.
126.96.36.199.1.5 Adverbs of degree: These indicate the degree of action. Examples:
/ghәղo/ 'much a lot'.
/ḍ̉aḍhyã/ 'loudly' and
/horyã/ 'slowly' /tәkiŗo/ 'fast' etc.
188.8.131.52.2. Structural formation of adverbs: The Sindhi adverbs are monomorphemic or polymorphemic.
184.108.40.206.2.1. Monomorphemic adverbs: Simple adverbs are monomorphemic. Examples:
/heţhI/ 'down', /mәthe/ 'up', /әj̉ປ/ 'today' /kalhә/ 'yesterday', /әրa/ 'still', yet etc.
220.127.116.11.2.2 Polymorphemic adverbs: These are formed from nouns, pronouns, adjectives verbs and adverbs etc. with the help of derivation, composition and reduplication.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Derived adverbs: These are derived from nouns, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs with the help of different affixes.
(i) From nouns: these are derived by (a) prefixing or (b) suffixing the nouns. Examples:
(a) /bešәkI/ 'certainly' /bevәqto/ 'untimely' /baqaide/ 'orderly'. (b) /nәtijәnI/ 'consequently' /qanunәnI/ 'legally'.
(ii) From Pronouns: bulks of adverbs are derived from the pronouns. The formation of these adverbs is given in the following chart.
|Types of adverbs||Types of pronouns|
/ko/ 'some onesome thing'
/heḍՙãhű/'here in this direction'
/hoḍՙãhű/''there,in that direction'
/keḍՙãhű/'where in whichdirection'
/je ḍՙãhű/'where, in which direction'
/teḍՙãhű/'there, in that direction'.
/hiә๊/'in this manner like this'/etIro/
/huә๊/'in thatmanner like that'/othro/
/tiә๊/in that manner,like that'
/te tIro/'that much'
(iii) From adjectives: /bՙihәrә/ 'second time', /tihәrә/ 'third time' (iv) From adverbs: /kIthe/ 'where' -> /kIthã/ 'from where' /hIte/ 'here' -> /hItã/ 'from here' /hປte/ 'there' -> /hປtã/ 'from there' /әndәrI/ 'in' -> /әndIrã/ 'from inside' /bՙahIrI/ 'out' -> /bՙahIrã/ 'from out side' /heţhI/ 'down' -> /hәţhã/ 'under' /pәre/ 'away' -> /pәryã/ 'from a distance'.
126.96.36.199.3.2 compound adverbs: The following types of compound adverbs can be formed in the language.
(i) noun + noun -> adverb: /ratI ḍՙĩhә๊/ 'day and night, always' /mәŋgәl ḍՙĩhű/ 'on Tuesday' noun + verb -> adverb /ḍՙĩhә๊ ḍՙIţhe/ 'in the day light, openly'. Noun + postposition -> adverb: /ratI jo/ 'at night' /vәqtә te/ 'in time' /sәvәlaiә sã/ 'easily' (ii) Pronoun + pronoun -> adverb: /pәnhInjo paղә/ 'automatically' (iii) Adjective + noun -> adverb: /YәkdәmI/ 'all of sudden' /hIkә varI/ 'once' Adjective + adjective -> adverb: /thoro ghәղo/ 'more or less' Adjective + adverb -> adverb: /cכtәrfI/ 'in all sides, every where' Adjective + postposition -> adverb: /әtIre mẽ/ 'mean while' (iv) Participle + Participle -> adverb: /ປthande vIhәnde/ 'always' Participle + participle: /dՙIsәnde i / 'as soon as (it is seen)' (v) Adverb + adverb -> adverb /hIte hປte/ 'here and there' /jIte tIte/ 'every where' /әjՙປ kәlhә/ 'now a days' Adverb + particle -> adverb /kәdՙәhĨ bI / 'any time' Adverb + postposition -> adverb /derI sã/ 'lately' /kәdՙәhĨ khã/ 'how long' /jesi taĩ/ 'until' /jәḍՙәhĩ bI/ 'when ever' /haղe i / 'just now' 188.8.131.52.3.3 Reduplicated adverbs. (i) Both the elements having the same phonemic shape. Examples: /horyã horyã/ 'showly' /kә ḍՙәhĨ kәḍՙәhĨ/ 'some times' /vәri vәri/ 'again and again, repeatedly'. (ii) Both of the elements are same having some other form in between. Example: /haղe jo haղe/ 'at this very moment, immediately' /xປdI bә xປdI/ 'automatically' /kIthe nә kIthe/ 'some were'.
It is worth to mention that many adjectives are also used as adverbs in the language. Examples:
/huә sປţho ģaihdi ahe/ 'she sings well'.
/pәhIrĩ tәvhĩ pәnhInjo kәmປ puro kәryo/ 'First you complete your work'. /hu ghәղo khIlyo/ 'He languaged a lot'. /huә thoro mປški/ 'she smiled a little'.
Beside the verb modifying adverbs which usually precede the forms which they modify, there are a number of adverbial words of a subsidiary nature which are used for denoting affirmation, negation, emphasis, contrast etc. These are called particles. They can be attached to any word in a sentence. The common Sindhi particles are given below:
(i) /ha/ 'yes' it is used for an affirmative expression. The affirmation can also be expressed by other words as. /zәrurປ/ 'surely' /pәkә/ 'definitely' and /cho nә/ 'way not' etc.
(ii) /nә/ 'no,not' It is used for negation the negative forms /konә/ /kanә/ and /kinә/ are also used in the language
/nәko/ is used in the complex sentences
/nәko hu lIkhe tho nәko pәŗhe tho/
'Neither he writes nor reads'.
/nә tә/ is used as an emphatic negative reply denoting surprise or disapproval. Examples:
/cha to hInji kapi khәĩ ahe/ 'Have you taken my note book?'
/nәtә/ 'oh no!, no indeed!'
/nә/ is also used as the final word in an interogative sentence to denote an emphatic affirmation. Example:
/tű әsã sã hәlәndẽ ne/ 'you (sg m) will come with us, won't you?'.
The affirmative /ha/ and negative /nә/ are also used as nouns in the language. Examples:
/mű ha kәi/ 'I accepted (lit. I said; yes)'.
/to nә cho kәi/ 'way did you refuse (lit. way did you said; No)'
(iii) The emphatic forms /rປģo/, /sIrfປ/ and /fәqtI/ are having the meaning of 'only' /műkhe rປģo/ sIrfປ/ fәqtI sכ rປpәya khәpәnI/ 'I need only one hundred rupees'.
(iv) The form /i/ is used for emphasis or gives the meaning of 'alone' only. Examples:
/pune khã riţa i ai ahe/ 'Rite alone has come from pune'. /hປnә khe hIkә i kapi khәpe/ 'He wants only one note book'. It also gives the meaning of 'even'. /huә hIte ai i kanhe/ 'she did not even come here'.
(v) The form /bI/ gives the meaning of 'also'. Examples:
/әsã sã raju bI hәlәndo/ 'Raju will also come with us'.
It is also used with other forms to add the meaning of 'any'. Examples:
/kປjhປ bI/ 'any thing' /kobI/ 'any one',
/kәd̉әhĨ bI/ any time and /kiә๊ bI/ 'any how' etc.
(vi) The particle /tә/ denotes emphasis or contrast. Examples: /tű hItã vәրປ tә/ 'Atleast you go from here'. The form /tә/ is also used to show contrast in the complex sentences (see……………) (vii) The particle /sәhi/ is used to emphasis an action. Examples: /huә әcetә sәhi mã hປnә sã ģalhaindປsI/ 'Let her come (emphasis); 'I shall talk to her'.
The postposition in Sindhi may be considered as a special class of particles which denote a certain relationship between the governing noun or pronoun (which aways occurs in the oblique form and in other parts of speech associated with them). They are functional words which are used to show the grammatical relations. They always occur after a noun, pronoun or any other word. Therefore they are called postpositions. Most of the postpositions are indeclinables except /jo/ 'of'. On the basis of their grammatical funtion all the postpositions in Sindhi are classified into two groups, used as case signs and used to form other compounds.
184.108.40.206.1. Postposition used as case signs.
The main postpositions used as case signs along with their main semantic functions are given below.
/khe/ It is used to express the accusative case. It occurs with the secondary object which is usually animate. Example:
/mű pәnhIրje dostә khe xәtປ lIkhyo/ 'I wrote a letter to my friend'.
The inanimate main objects do not take any postposition in the accusative case. Examples:
/ramә sәbәqປ lIkhyo/ 'Ram wrote a lesson'. /mã әxbarә pәŗhã tho/ 'I read a newspaper'. The postposition /khe/ is also used with subject in the following conditions: (i) To express the blood relations; i.e. /hປnә khe bՙә pປţә әhInI/ 'He has two sons'.
(ii) When the verb is used in the infinite or futinative form. Examples: /to khe vәրәղປ khәpe/ 'you (sg) should go'.
/mű khe mປmbәiә vәրIղo ahe/ 'I have to go to Mumbai'.
(iii) It is also used with some transitive verbs in their perfective forms. Examples:
/hປnә khe Inamປ mIlyo/ 'He received a prize'.
(iv) When the subject is used as experiences. Examples: /gopalә khe bປxarປ ahe/ 'Gopal is suffering from fever'. /műkhe hIndi indi ahe/ 'I know Hindi'.
It is worth to mention that in Sindhi when the subject is used in the nominative case with a transitive verb in the perfective form, it is used in the oblique form but does not take any postposition. Example:
/mű akhaղi lIkhi/ 'I wrote a story'.
/chokIriә gitປ ģato/ 'The girl sang a song'.
/khã/: It is used in the following situations
(i) From a person:
/tәvhĩ mastәrә khã kItabә vәţho/ 'you (pl) take the books from the teacher'.
(ii) Starting point of a place:
/mປmbәI pune khã kәtIro pәre ahe/ 'How far is Mumbai from Pune'.
(iii) Starting time:
/әsã jo klasປ ḍ̉әhẽ bәte khã pәրjẽ bәje taĩ ahe/ 'our class is from 10 o'clock' to 5 o'clock'.
(iv) Duration with reference to a continuous action.
/huә b̉InI salәnI khã dehIliә mẽ ahe/ 'She has been in Delhi for two years'.
/raju gopalә khã nәղḍho ahe/ 'Raju is youngher than Gopal'.
(vi) with the subject of a verb in the passive or impersonal voice.
/mű khã sәbәqປ pәŗhyo nәtho vәրe/ 'I am unable to read the lesson'. /hປnә khã hәlyo nә tho vәրe/ 'He is unable to walk'.
/vәţi/ It expresses the proximity of location 'near' belongingness. I.e. 'has/have'. Examples:
/bhItI vәţI kປrsi rәkhປ/ 'Keep the chair near the wall'.
/mű vәţI ghәղa sປţha kItabә ahInI/ 'I have many good books'.
/vәtã/ It is used to give the meaning of or from a proximate location. Example:
/d/ It is used to give the meaning of or from a proximate location. Example:
/dәrә vәţã kປrsI khәղປ/ 'Take the chair from the door'.
/te/ It denotes location or position on or upon or at some thing. Examples:
/mεzә te kapyű rәkho/ 'Put the note books on the table'.
It is also used to express the point of time at which action takes place. Example: /mã vәqtә te pәhປtປsI/ 'I reached at the right time'. /tã/ It gives the meaning of 'from a surface' Examples: /hu kItabә mεzә tã khәղປ/ 'Take those books from the table'. /mẽ/ It gives the meaning of 'in'. Examples: /hປnә kәmIre mẽ kerປ ahe/ 'who is in the room'. /ģo thIriә mẽ kItabә vijhປ/ 'put the books in the bag'. /mã/ It gives the meaning of 'from inside'. Examples: /ģo thIriә mã kapyű kәḍhປ/ 'Take out the note books from the bag'. /sã/ It is used for the following expressions: (i) Instrument: /chປriә sã sufປ kәpI/ 'cut the apple with the knife'. (ii) Manner: /dhyanә sã bՙປdho/ 'Listen with attention (carefully)'. (iii) Association: /huә műsã mIli/ 'she met me'. (iv) Along with:
/cha tű műsã dehIliә hәlәndẽ/ 'will you (m sg) come with me to Delhi' in this type of constructions /sanu/ is also used to give the meaning of 'along with'
/asã saղປ radha bI hәlәndi/ 'Radha will also come with us'. /laI/ It gives the meaning of 'for'. Examples:
/hປnә pәnhIրje zalә laI rešImi saŗhi xәridә kәi/ 'He purchased a silk sari for his wife'.
/ḍՙãhű/ It gives the meaning of 'at, towards'. Examples: /borḍә ḍՙãhű ḍՙIso/ 'Look at the board'. /taĨ/ It gives the meaning of 'upto'.
/kalhә/ mű sәtẽ baje taĩ hປnә jo Intizarປ kәyo pIe/ 'I was waiting for you till 7 o'clock'.
/mã bՙປdhәrә taĩ mokәlә te ahyã/ 'up to wednesday I am on leave'. /hປә afİsә taĩ әsã sã ai/ 'she came with us up to the office'.
/jp/ It is used for the genitive constructions to indicate possession or association with the followed noun. It is inflected according to the following noun. Examples:
(i) /әsã jo kItabປ/ 'our book' /әsã ja kItabә/ 'our books' /әsã ji kapi/ 'our note books' /әsã jű kapyű/ 'our note books' /әsã je kItabә mẽ/ 'our note book'. (ii) radha jo bhaປ/ 'Radha's brother' radha ji bheղә/ 'Radha's sister' radha je bhaປ jo dostປ/ 'Radha's brother's friend'.
220.127.116.11.2 Postpositions used to form other phrases.
The postpositions are also used to form different types of phrases in the language. Some types of phrases are gives below:
(i) noun + postposition + noun -> noun- phrase /hປnә khe rປģo kәmә sã kәmປ ahe/ (ii) noun + postposition + adjective -> adjectival- phrase /thәmbhe khã ḍIgho/ 'taller than a pole, very tall'. (iii) noun + postposition -> adverbial- phrase: /ratI jo/ 'at night' /sປbປhә jo/ 'in the morning'
(iv) adjective + postposition + adjective -> adjectival- phrase. /hປnә vәţI vәdI mẽ vәdI sכ rປpәya hűnda/ 'He might be having not more than hundred rupees'.
(v) adverb + postposition -> adverbial phrase. /derI sã/ 'late' /sປbhaղe khã/ 'from tomorrow'
Conjunctions connect two or more than two words, phrases or sentences in an utterane. They are indeclinable in the language. Structinally these are simple forms, compounds or phrasal pairs. Examples: /chokIra ε๊ chokIryű/ 'boys and girls' /naղḍhe ģoţhә mẽ yo vәḍ̉e šәhәrә mẽ/ 'In a small village or big city' /әj̉ປ fi bhәrI nәtә tokhe ḍ̉әղdປ bhәrIղo pәvәndo/ 'Deposite the fee other wise you have to pay the fine'. /nәko huә pәŗhe thi nәko lIkhe thi/ 'Neither she reads nor writes'.
18.104.22.168.1 Main types of conjunctions.
At the syntactic level there are two types of conjunctions in the language: coordinate conjunctions and subordinate conjunctions.
22.214.171.124.1.1. Coordinate conjunctions.
The conjunctions joining two mutually independent sentences are called coordinate conjunctions.
The main coordinate conjunctions are given below:
(i) Cumulative: It merely adds one statement to another. It is expressed by /ε๊/ 'and'. Example:
/mã sәbәqປ pәŗhәndປsI ε๊ huә lIkhәndi/ 'I shall read the lesson and she will write'.
(ii) Alternative: It express a choice between two alternatives. It is expressed by /ya/ 'or' /nәtә/ 'other wise' and /nәko….. nәko/ 'neither….. ..nor' etc. Examples:
/raju dehIliә vәndo ya mã vәndປsI/ 'Raju will go to Delhi or I shall go'. /tű vәրuປ nәtә műkhe vәրәղປ ḍՙe/ 'you go other wise let me go'. /hu nәko khae tho nәko pie tho/ 'Neither he eats or drinks'.
The words /toŗe/ and /cahe/ are also used as the coordinate conjunctions which give the meaning
of 'or'. Example:
/tű әcĩ tore/ cahe hu әce/ 'you come or he comes'.
(iii) Adversative: It expresses a contrast between two statements. It is expressed by /pәrә/ 'but'. Example:
/hປnә műkhe pεsa ḍ̉Ina pIe pәrә mű nә vәrta/ 'He was giving me money but I didn't accept'.
126.96.36.199.1.1.2. Subordinate conjunctions.
They join subordinate clauses to construct a complex sentence. Some of the main subordinate conjunctions which express time, location, direction, manner, reason, condition, result, concession etc. are given below.
(i) Time: /jәḍ̉әhĨ ….. tәḍ̉әhĨ/ 'when …. than' /jәḍ̉әhĨ hປnә pປchyo tәḍ̉әhĨ mű jәvәbປ ḍ̉Ino/ 'I answered when he asked (a question)'.
/jesĩ mã ປte pәhປcã tesĩ tű nә vәրI jI/ 'unless reach there, you should not go'
/khã aģປ/ 'before'
/mã ute pәhປ tປsi tәhĨ khã әģປ hu hәli vyo/ 'He left before I reached there'.
/khã poI/ 'after'
/mã ghәrI pәhປtປsI tәhĨ khã poI hu vyo ho/ 'I reached home after he had gon'.
/jIte…… tite/ 'where… there'
/jite Iho kItabປ rәkhyo ho tite rәkhປ/ 'Put the book at the place where it was kept'.
/jeḍ̉ãhű…. teḍ̉ãű/ 'where ….. there'
/jeḍ̉ãhű hu vәndo teḍ̉ãhű mã bI vendປsI/ 'I shall go where ever he goes'.
/jiә๊…. tiә๊/ 'as……as'
/jiә๊ mű cәyo tiә๊ hປnә kәyo/ 'He did as I told him'.
(v) Cause or reason:
/Inә kәre/ 'there fore'
/hu rәribປ ho Inkәre mű sәndәsI mәdәdә kәi/ 'He was poor there fore I helped him'.
/cho te/ 'because'
/mã halә mẽ vәրi nә tho sәghã cho tә művәţI pasI kanhe/ 'I can't enter in the hall because I don't have a pass'. /so/ 'so'
vacә xәridә kәrIղi hປi so mű khesI sכ rປpәya ḍ̉Ina/ 'He wanted to purchase a watch so I gave him five hundred rupees'.
/je……. tә/ 'if…… than'
/je huә ghәrI vendi tә mã bI vendәsI/ 'If she goes home, I shall also
/әgәrI/ is also used at the place of /je/ which gives the same meaning. Example:
/әgәrI hu ປte ahe tә mã hປnә sã ģalhaidປsI/ 'If he is there. I shall talk to him'.
/nәtә/ 'other wise, else'
/tәkIŗo ḍoŗປ nәtә gaḍ̉i gປsaindẽ/ 'Run fast, else you will miss the tain'.
/jetoղikI……. tәhĩ hunde/ although.. even than'
/jetoղikI derI thi vei ahe tәhĨ hunde bI әsã khe thoro tәrsәղປ khәpe/ 'Although it is late, we should wait for some time'.
An interjection is a word or phrase which expresses some sudden feeling or emotion.
It may be used in a simple, composite or reduplicate form i.e. /haI/ 'alas!', /әŗe vahә/ 'very good !' and /chi chi/ 'fie !' etc.
The interjections are also expressed with the help of nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verb.
The interjections are always used in the vocative forms and do not have any grammatical relation with any other word in a sentence. Actually an Interjection is a sentence itself.
The interjections may express joy, grief, surprise, hatred, rebuke and approval etc. (i) Joy: /vahә/ 'how excellent!' /vahә havә/ hurrah!' (ii) Grief: /haI haI/ 'alas!' /he ramә/ 'O God!' /әI әma/ 'O mother!' /mປປsI ŗe/ 'woe!! (lit o I am dead!)' (iii) Surprise: /әŗe/ 'oh!' /cha/ 'what!' /kerປ/ 'who!' (iv) Hatred: /chi/ 'fie!' /bՙປḍՙI mәrĩ/ 'Shame! (lit-drown!)' (v) Rebuke: /cປpI/ 'hush! Keep mum!' /hәlປ/ 'go away!' (vi) /šabasI/ 'bravo!'
Syntax deals with the combination of words in phrases and sentences. In this section the main phrase-types word order in an utterance and main types of sentences are discussed briefly.
A phrase may be composed of minimally a word or a group of words linked together which can be replaced by a simple item of that class. The structures of Sindhi phrase types may be illustrated as follows.
In a noun and the head is a noun and the attribute is a noun/s or an adjective (or adjectival phrase). In its simple form a Noun-phrase consists of a single noun or pronoun and in the complex form it may consist of more than one noun or adj-phrase + noun/s.
Main types of NPs: The following are the various structural types of NPs. (1) NP consisting of a noun: |chokIro| ‘boy’ |zәrurәtә| ‘necessity’ (2) NP consisting of a Pronoun|Pron-Phrase |mã| ‘I’ |huә| ‘she’ |tũmã| ‘you (sg) and I’ (3) NP consisting of an adj|adj-phrase + Noun |Sປţho dostປ| ‘a good friend’ |hປnәjo sәbhini khã sປţho dostປ| ‘his best friend’ (4) NP consisting of participle|part.phrase + noun |khປlyәlປ dәrປ| ‘opened door’ |tezປ ḍoŗәndo ghoŗo| ‘a fast running horse’ (5) NP consisting of a relative phrase + noun |әsãjo dostປ| ‘our friend’ |hປnәje bhaປje dostәjo ghәrປ| ‘his brother’s friend’s house’ (6) NP consisting of a sequence of nouns|noun phrases with or without adjectives and conjunction. |kItabປ, kapi ε๊ penә| ‘book, note book and pen’ |kari pen ε๊ ģaŗhi pensllә| ‘black pen and red pencil’ |luղປ mIrchә| ‘salt, chilis’ (7) Np consisting of an adj-phrase with unexpressed noun (which is understood in the context. |hi bՙәi| ‘these both’ |tәmamປ rәribປ| ‘very poor’ All the above types of NPs may be used with postpositions. |hປnәje sәbhini khã vәḍՙe pປţә khe| ‘to his eldest son’
An adjectival phrase occurs within a noun phrase as a modifier. The following are various structural types of Adj.P.
(1) Adj-P consisting of an adjective |sປţho| ‘good’ |dhәnvanປ| ‘rich’ (2) Adj-P consisting of a sequence of adjectives with or without a conjunction |әcho karo| ‘white black’ |ḍՙaḍho sປţho| ‘very good’ |sәmjhu, imandarປ ε๊ vәfadarປ| ‘intelligent, honest and faithful’ (3) Adj.P consisting of a N|NP followed by PP + adj : |ramә khã vәḍՙo| ‘elder than Ram’ |hປnә je bheղә khã nәղḍhi| ‘younger than her sister’ (4) Adj. P consisting of NP following by |Jәhiŗo| + adjective: |bhimә JәhIŗo bՙәlvanປ| ‘brave like Bhima’ |pәthәrә JәhIŗo kәthorປ| ‘hard like a stone’ (5) Adj-P consisting of participle/part. Phase: |ḍoŗәndi (chokIri)| ‘running girl’ |nә cәnda ģainda (bՙarә)/dancing (and) singing (children) (6) Adj.P of a NP/adv.P/ part-p followed by |Jo|pp |sita jo (ghәrປ)| ‘sita’s (house)’ |asã Ja (kItabә)| ‘our (books)’ |bՙInhĩ ji (sәahә)| ‘(advice) given by both’ |khaIղәjũ (šәyũ| ‘(items) for eating’ (7) Adj.P consisting of relative clause |raju jәhĨ asãji mәdәdә kәI hປteveţho ahe| ‘Raju who helped us is sitting there’.
An adverbal phrase is formed by an advert plus optional modifier or other class of words which may have adverbial function.
The following are various structural types of Adv.P. (1) Adv.P consisting of an adverb |haղe| ‘now’ |hIte| ‘here’ (2) Adv.P consisting of a sequence of adverbs with or without a conjunction |hIte ya hປte| ‘here or there’ | heḍՙãhũ hoḍՙãhປ| ‘here (and) there; in this direction (or) that’. (3) Adv.P consisting of a Noun. Phrase constituted of composite noun |sumәrә ḍՙĩhũ| ‘on Monday’ (4) Adv.P consisting of a Noun Phrase constitute of adjective + noun. |sәjՙI ratI| ‘whole night’ (5) Adv.P consisting a participle|part-p |hu rປәndo ayo| ‘He came crying’ |huә khIlәnde khIlәnde thәkIji pei| ‘she became tired by laughing a lot’
A verb-phrase is formed by a main verb which may be expanded with the help of dependent verb/s and adverbs/s. It may be expanded in the both directions.
The main types of VP may be illustrated as follows: (1) VP consisting of a main verb (M.V) |vәրປ| ‘go (imperative eg)’ |vәndປ sI| ‘(I) Shall go’ (2)VP consisting of a MV + aux.V |vәրi sәghyປsI| ‘(I) could go’ (3) VP consisting of a MV + aux-V1+au xV2 |lIkhi rahyo ahyã| ‘(I) am writing’ (4) V.P consisting of an adv.p +MV |tәmamປ tezປ ḍoŗYປsI| ‘(I) ran very fast’ (5) V.P consisting of an adv.P + M.V. + aux V.1 |tezປ ḍoŗI sәghyປsI| ‘(I) could run fast’ (6) VP consisting of an adv.P + M.V + auxv1+aux2 |tezປ ḍoŗI sәghã tho| ‘(I) can run fast’
In Sindhi normally the subject with all its attributes comes first which is followed by the object and its other predicative words (if they occur) and verb comes in the end of the sentence. Thus it may be said that the normal word order of a Sindhi sentence is s(o)v. for stylistic and some other considerations like special emphasis etc the normal word order may be changed.
Some general observations about the word order are based on the normal speech of native speakers are given below.
The subject occurs first and verb occurs in the end of a sentence. Other parts of speech (if any) occur in between the subject and verb.
Examples: |mã vendປsI| ‘I shall go’ |әsĩ hປnәnI sã mປmbәiә vendasĩ| ‘We shall go Mumbai with them’.
If the verb is transitive the object occurs in between the subject and verb. |әsã әmbປ khadho| ‘We ate a mango’
When there are two objects in a sentence one primary and other secondary generally the secondary object occurs before the primary object.
Example: |mũ hປnә khe kItabә ḍՙIna| ‘I gave him books’
An attributive adjective occurs before the noun to which it qualifies. Examples: |әchiә saŗhiә ji gimәtә bՙә sכ rປpәya ahe| ‘The price of white sari is two hundred rupees’.
If a noun phrase is having two or more different types of adjectives the order will be pronominal, quantitative and qualitative.
Example: |hປnәje bՙInI hošyarປ bhaປrәnI Khe: Inamປ mIlya| ‘His two intelligent brothers received prizes’.
An adjectival phrase may also occur after the nominal form. Such use of an adjective is considered to be predicative.
Examples: |әmbປ mIţho ahe| ‘The mango is sweet’ |chokIri sປhIղi hປi| ‘The girl was beautiful’
Generally an adverbial phrase precedes the verb to modify it. Example: |hu kәḍՙәĨ vendo| ‘When will he go?’ |kItabә heţhI rәkhປ| ‘Keep the books down’
When an adverbial phrase have two or more different types of adverbs the normal order will be temporal, locational, manner and degree.
Example: |tũ hane hIte Iẽ etIro cho pyo ģalhaĩ| ‘Now why are you talking here so much in this way?’
Oftenly some temporal adverbs occur in the beginning of a sentence even before the subject.
Example: |sປbhaղe hu dehIliә vendo| ‘Tomorrow he will go to Delhi’ |haղe tũ bՙahIrI nә vәրປ| ‘Now, you don’t go outside’
In a simple sentence a single clause is used, while in a complex sentence two or more clauses are combined in a manner that one of them acts as the head and other functions as attribute.
The clauses may be divided into two main types: Independent and dependent. The independent clause occurs in a simple sentence. It also may occur as a part of a compound or complex sentence.
|hu әxbarә pәŗhe tho| ‘He reads a newspaper’ |hປnә cәyatә mã IskulI vendປsI| He said, ‘I shall go to school’
A dependent clause needs another clause to complete the sentence. The sentence with a dependent clause is always a complex sentence.
|sita cәyotә mã tәvhãkhe xәtປ lIkhәndәsI| ‘Sita said, ‘I shall write you a letter’
On the basis of their functional value all the independent clauses in Sindhi are mainly of two types: Copulative and non-copulative.
A copulative clause is formed with the help of a copula verb. Copula verb is a non-process type verb. Whose function is only to connect the subject and the predicate in an utterance. These can inter into the system of causative and voice.
The copulative clauses may be sub grouped into two types: Equative and Non-equative.
(1) Equative: The equative type of clauses are reversible and irreversible. (i) Reversible equative: |mohәnປ hປnәjo dostປ ahe| ‘Mohan is his friend’ |hປnәjo dostປ mohәnປ ahe| ‘His friend is mohan’. (ii) Irreversible equative: |hປnәjo bhaປ mastәrປ ahe| ‘His brother is a teacher’ But normally not |*mastәrປ hປnәjo bhaປ ahe| ‘The teacher is his brother’
2. Non-equative: The non-equative is also irreversible, but it is either attributive or stative. (i) Attributive: The attributive clauses are of two types: unmarked attributive and marked attributive. (a) Unmarked Attributive: It has an attributive complement which refers to the subject. These attributive elements cannot take to post position |khe| Examples: |әmbປ mIţho ahe| ‘The mango is sweet’ |chokiri xປšI hປi| ‘The girl was happy’ (b) Marked Attributive: These are having the post position |khe|. Example: |hປnә khe bՙә pປţә ahInI| ‘He has two sons’ (ii) Stative: There is not any complement in such clauses Example: |kalhә dәsәhIŗo ho| ‘Yesterday was Dashera’
All the process-type clauses may be called non-copulative clauses. On the basis of causative-non causative nature, these may be divided into the four subclasses: Accusative, Non-causative simple causative and extended causative. Simple causative and extended causative.
The non-copulative clauses which are not related to any causative set may be called accusative. |әch-| ‘come’, |vәր-| ‘go’ and few other verbs are operated in the accusative structure.
Examples: |mã tәvhã vәţI indປsI| ‘I shall come to you’ |hປnә khe ghәrI vәրIղo ho| ‘He had to go home’
There are two types of non-causative clauses: Intransitive and Transitive. (i) Intransitive: Formally these clauses are intransitive but they can be changed into the causative type clauses. Examples: |hu asã saã hәlәndo| ‘He will come with us’ |mũkhe hປte tәrsIղa ho| ‘I had to wait there’
(ii) Transitive: There may be sub grouped into the two classes: single transitive and double transitive and double transitive. The single transitive type clauses are having only one complement.
Example: |mũ әmbປ khadho| ‘I ate a mango’ The double transitive type clauses are having two complements. Example: |mũ hປnә khe kItabປ ḍՙIno| ‘I gave a book to him’
All the simple causative type clauses are transitive by nature. They are having two participants structure. Example: |mũ nכkәrә khã pani bhәrayo| ‘I got water filled by the servant’
These clauses are also transitive by nature. They are having more than two participants structure. Example: |mũ әma khã fәqirә khe mani kharai| ‘I was caused by my mother to feed the beggar’
The compound and complex sentences are formed from the simple sentences.
These sentences are formed from two or more independent clauses with the help of conjunction.
Examples: |hu pәŗ әndo ε๊ lIkhәndo| ‘He will read and write’ |huә indi ya mã vendәsI| ‘She will come or I (f) shall go’
These are formed with the help of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Main types of dependent clauses are nominal, adjectival and adverbial.
(1) Nominal Clause: This type of dependent clause is used for a nominal. Example: |mũ khe xәbәrә kanә hປi tәhu corປ ahe| ‘I was not knowing that he was a thief’ (2) Adjectival Clause: This type of dependent clause qualifies the noun in the subject/predicate position. Examples: |hu poŗho jekto tәvhã je afisә mẽ kәmປ kәndo ho, kalhә gປzare vyo| ‘The old man who worked in your office passed away yesterday’ |uhe: kәhIŗa chokIra ahInI jini kәmປ puro kәyo ahe| ‘Who are those boys who have completed the work’ (3) Adverbial Clause: It modifies the verb of the main clause. Examples: |jәḍՙәhĨ mã ayo hosI tәḍՙәhĨ tũ keḍՙahũ uyo hປẽ| ‘When I had come that time where had you gone’ |jIә๊ jIә๊ dhәnປ vәdhәndo ahe tIә๊ tIә๊ lobhປ bI vәdhәndo ahe| ‘As wealth increases, greediness also increases’
The transformation of statement type simple sentences can take place in affirmative, negative or interrogative. Their formation is given below.
|Affirmative + Ihe әsãJa kItabә ahInI| => |ha Ihe әsãJa kItabә ahInI| ‘Yes these are our books’
|mã+neg+vәndປsI| => |mã nә vәndປsI| ‘I shall not go’
These are of two types: conformation and informative. (1) Conformative (Yes or no type): The aim of such sentences is to conform the matter. The answer of such interrogative will be ‘yes’ or ‘no’. |Interr+hi hປnәjo ghәrປ ahe| => |cha hi hປnәjo ghәrປ ahe| ‘Is this his house?’
Such interrogative sentences indicate a particular gap in the information. These constructions are formed with the help of interrogative pronouns, adjectives and adverbs.
Examples: |huә + interr + ahe| => |huә kerә ahe| ‘who is she?’ |hu + interr + pປţປahe| => |hu kә๊hĨjo pປţປ ahe| ‘Whose son is he?’ |ramປ mປmbәiә + interr + vendo|=> |ramປ mປmbәiә kәḍՙәhĨ vendo| ‘when will Ram go to Mumbai’
The common Sindhi lexical items are selected from different semantic domains and classified in the following groups: -
/IղḍәlәţhI/ ‘rainbow’, /ປsә/ 'sunshine’, /űdәhI/ ‘darkness’ /kәkәrປ/ ‘cloud’, /khuhປ/ ‘well’, /cәղḍປ/ ‘moon’, / Јәbәlປ/ ‘mountain’ /Јhәŋgәlປ/ ‘jungle’, /ḍhәղḍhә/ ‘lake’ /tәlaປ/ ‘pond’, /taro/ ‘star’, /duhõ/ ‘smoke’, /dhәrti/ ‘earth’, /nәdi/ ‘river’, /pәthәrປ/ ‘stone’, /pacho/ ‘shadow’, /paղi/ ‘water’, /bahI/ ‘fire’, /b̉eţu/ ‘Island’, /b̉әni/ ‘farm’ /mIţi/ ‘soil’, /mĩhũ/ ‘rain’, /rIղປ/ ‘desert’, /rošIni/ ‘light’, /vahປ/ ‘canal’, /vIJ์u/ ‘lightening’, /sәmປղḍປ/ ‘sea’, /sIJປ/ ‘sun’.
2.5.2. Trees and plants:
/kәŋḍo/ ‘thorn’, /kano/ ’stalk’, /gahປ/ ’grass’, /gປlປ/ ‘flower’, /choḍ̉o/ ‘bark’, /ţari/ ‘twing’, /thປŗປ/ ‘trunk’, /pәnປ/ ‘leaf’, /paŗә/ ‘root’, /b̉IJປ/ ‘seed’, /b̉uţo/ ‘plant’, /mປkhIri/ ‘bud’, /mevo/ ‘fruit’, /vәղປ/ ’tree’, /vәļI/ ‘creeper’, /šaxә/ ‘branch’ /sәlo/ ‘sprout’.
/әղgurປ/ ‘grape’, /әրjirປ/ ‘fig’, /әnasປ/ ‘pineapple’, /әmbປ/ ‘mango’, /kәmәndປ/ ‘sugarcane’, /kelo/ ’banana’, /khaj̉o/ ‘cashew nut’, /gIdamIŗi/ ‘tamarind’, /gIdIro/ ‘muskmelon’, /cәkũ/ ‘sapodilla’, /chahĩ/ ‘watermelon’, / j̉әmu/ ‘blackberry’, /zetunປ/ ‘guava’, /ḍaŗhũ/ ‘pomegranate’, /narәŋgi/ ‘orange’, /narelປ/ ‘coconut’, /pәpәyo/ ‘papaya’, /pIsto/ ‘pistachio-nut’ /badami/ ‘almond’, /bohimປղປ/ ‘groundnut’, /b̉erປ/ ‘jujube’, /mosәmi/ ‘sweet lemon’, /vәngi/ ‘cucumber’ /sitaphәlປ/ ‘custard apple’, /sufປ/ ‘apple’.
/әdrәkә/ ‘ginger’, /kәcalu/ ‘gruel’, /kәdu/ ‘bottle gourd,’ /kәrelo/ ‘bittergourd’, /khປmbhi/ ‘mushroom’, /gәjәrә/ ‘carrot’, /gປlәgobi/ ‘cauliflower’, /gogIru/ ‘turnip’, /turi/ ‘greengourd’ /thumә/ ‘garlic’, /pәţaţo/ ‘potato’, /pәnәgobi/ ‘cabbage’, /paļәkә/ ‘spinach’, /peţho/ ‘pumpkin’, /bәsәrປ/ ‘onion’, /bIhu/ ‘lotusroot’, /bhiղḍi/ ‘lady’s finger’, /mәţәrປ/ ‘pea’, /mIrcປ/ ‘chilli’, /muri/ ‘radish’, /methi/ ‘finugreek’, /meho/ ‘squashgourd’, /limo/ ‘lime’, /vaŋәղu/ ‘brinjal’ /sIŋi/ ‘drum stick’, /surәղປ/ ‘barbarous root’.
2.5.5. Food grains and other eating and drinking items:
/әţo/ ‘flour’, /әhປ/ ‘food grain’, /әhປrI/ ‘mustard seed’, /acarປ/ ‘pickles’, /kәŗhi/ ‘curry’ /kәղkә/ ‘wheat’ /kafi/ ‘coffεε’, /kປlfi/ ‘icε candy’ /kәkປ/ ‘cake’, /khәղḍປ/ “sugar” /khirປ/ ‘milk’, /gihປ/ ‘clarified butter or cream’, /ģປŗປ/ ‘jaggary’, /cәţIղi/ ‘sauce’, /cәղo/ ‘horsegram’, /cãvәrປ/ ‘rice’; /cãhI/ ‘tea’ /ЈuәrI/ ‘great millet’, /ḍ̉әhi/ ‘curds’, /d̉ປdhປ/ ‘butter milk’ /ḍhәb̉әlә/ ‘baked bough of flour’, /darũ/ wine, /dalI/ ‘pulse’ /panປ/ ‘betal’, /puri/ ‘puri’, /phປlko/ ‘chapati’ – ‘a thin bread made of wheat flour’, /phoţo/ ‘cardamom’ /bәrfә/ ‘ice’, /b̉aJhIri/ ‘pεarl millet’, /bhaj̉I/ ‘vegetable’, /mәkai/ ‘maiza’, /mәkhәղu/ ‘butter’, /mәţәrປ/ ‘pea’, /mәlai/ ‘cream’, /mәsalho/ ‘spice’ /mãhĩ/ ‘black gram’, /makhi/ ‘honey’, /mIţhai/ ‘sweet meat’, /mປŋә/ ‘green grams’, /mປrbo/ ‘Jam’ /mεdo/ ‘fine flour’, /roţi/ ‘bread’, /luղປ/ ‘salt’, /l כ๊gປ/ ‘clove’, /šәrbәtປ/ ‘syrup’, /sopari/ ‘betelnut’, /hεḍә/ ‘turmeric’.
/ປţhປ/ ‘camel’, /kປto/ ‘dog’, /xәcәrປ/ ‘mule’ /gәḍ̉әhປ/ ‘donkey’, /gãI/ ‘cow’, /gIdәŗu/ ‘jackat’, /ghәţo/ ‘ram’, /ghoŗo/ ‘horse’, /cito/ ‘panther’, /dhәģo/ ‘bullock’, /bәghәŗປ/ ‘wolf’, /bandәrປ/ ‘monkey’ /b̉әkәrປ/ ‘he goat’, /b̉әkIri/ she-goat’, /b̉Ili/ ‘cat’, /mẽhĩ/ ‘she buffalo’, /rIchປ/ ‘bear’, /rIḍhә/ ‘sheep’, /lumәŗປ/ ‘fox’, /vaghປ/ ‘tiger’, /šĩhũ/ ‘lion’ /sәho/ ‘rabbit’, /sanປ/ ‘he buffalo’ /suәrປ/ ‘pig’, /harәղu/ deer, /hathi/ ‘elephant’.
/ປţhປpakhi/ ‘ostrich’, /kәb̉әrI/ ‘canary’ /kәbuŧәrປ/ ‘pigeon’, /kãປ/ ‘crow’, /kປkIŗI/ ‘hen’ /kປkປŗປ/ ‘cock’, /koIlә/ ‘cuckoo’, /ģIJhә/ ‘vulture’ /cәmIro/ ‘bat’ /cIb̉Iro/ ‘owl’ /jhIrki/ ‘sparrow’, /tItIrປ/ ‘partidge’, /ḍelә/ ‘peahen’, /toto/ ‘parrot’, /bәdәkә/ ‘duck’, /bazປ/ ‘falcon’, /bປlbປlә/ ‘nightingale’, /b̉әghປ/ ‘crane’, /morປ/ ‘peacock’, /sIrIղI/ ‘kite’, /hәnsປ/ ‘swan’.
2.5.8. Other Creatures:
/әkәmәkiәŗo/ ‘grasshopper’, /әJIgәrປ/ ‘python’ /ປḍ̉әhi/ ‘white ant’, /kIrŗi/ ‘lizard’, /kIvIli/ ‘ant’ /kiõ/ ‘worm’, /kປmi/ ‘tortoise’, /kuo/ ‘rat’, /koriәro/ ‘spider’, /khປrkhәb̉ito/ ‘glow worm’, /khekhIŗo/ ‘crab’ /gãgәţປ/ ‘prawn’, /gປsә/ ‘musk-rat’, /cIcIŗປ/ ‘flea’, /Jũ/ ‘louse’, /ţIղḍIղປ/ ‘beetle’, /ḍ̉eḍ̉әrປ/ ‘frog’, /nãgປ/ ‘snake’, /noŗiәŗo/ ‘squirrel’, /norປ/ ‘mongoose’ /popәţປ/ ‘butterfly’, /mәkhI/ ‘fly’, /mәchәrປ/ ‘mosquito’, /mәchi/ ‘fish’, /makoŗo/ ‘black ant’ /mປŋghәղປ/ ‘bug’, /vaghu/ ‘crocodile’, /vIchũ/ ‘scorpion’, /saղḍo/ ‘chameleon’, /sapo/ ‘earth worm’, /sIpә/ ‘oyster’.
2.5.9. Household items:
/ປkhIri/ ‘wooden mortar’, /kaţhi/ ‘firewood’ /kIţIli/ ‘kettle’, /kປրji/ ‘key’, /kປrfປ/ ‘lock’ /kukәrປ/ ‘cooker’, /kປnḍi/ ‘flower pot’ /kevi/ laddle, /koIlo/ ‘coal’, /kopປ/ ‘cup’, /qifә/ ‘funner’, /khәţә/ ‘cot’, /khປrpi/ ‘scraper’, /ģuղI/ ‘sack’, /ģothIri/ ‘bag’, /ralico/ ‘carpet’ /glasປ/ ‘tumbler’, /ghәŗamәրji/ ‘pitcher stand’ /ghaghәrI/ ‘a metallic jar’, /ghປghi/ ‘goglet’, /cәkປlo/ ‘pastry board’, /cәmco/ ‘spoon’, /cakũ/ ‘pen-knife’, /cadәrә/ ‘bedsheet’, /cImţo/ ‘tongs’, /cປlhI/ ‘hearth’ /chәj̉u/ ‘winnowing fan’, /chәţi/ ‘umbrella’, /chaղi/ ‘strainer’, /cປri/ ‘knife’, /chIko/ ‘a hanging basket’ /jәղḍປ/ ‘millstone’, /taŋki/ ‘water tank’, /ţijoŗi/ ‘safe’ /ţokIri/ ‘basket’, /ḍhәkәղປ/ ‘lid’, /tәi/ ‘a hollow frying pan’, /tәo/ ‘bread baking pan’, /tәnurປ/ ‘oven’, /thalhi/ 'a metallic plate', /thalhປ/ a large metallic plate, /dhaģo/ ‘thread’, /nәŗo/ ‘pipe’ /nәlປ/ ‘water tap’ , /pәŋkho/ ‘fan’, /pәrdo/ ‘curtain’ /pәlәŋgປ/ ‘bed stead’, /pIŋgho/ ‘cradle’, /peti/ ‘trunk’, /bәti/ ‘lamp’, /bәrղi/ ‘jar’, /bәsi/ ‘saucer’, /balţi/ ‘bucket’, /botalә/ ‘bottle’, /b̉ປhari/ ‘broom’, /mәchәrdani/ ‘mosquito net’, /mәndhiәŗo/ ‘churning staff’, /macisປ/ ‘match-box’, /mປhIri/ ‘pestle’, /meղәbәti/ ‘candle’, /lalţinu/ ‘lantern’ /loto/ ‘a round metallic utensil’, /vIրiղo/ ‘hand fan’, /vIhaղo/ ‘pillow’, /velәղປ/ ‘rolling pin’, /sәndປli/ ‘pallet’, /sәnduqe/ ‘box’, /sәvәŗI/ ‘quilt’, /sabປղປ/ ‘soap’, /sປi/ ‘needle’, /sofo/ ‘sofa’.
/әղgocho/ ‘a thin towel’ /kәcho/ ‘under wear’, /kәmbәlປ/ ‘blanket’, /kປrto/ ‘kurta’-a loose fitting upper garment, /koţi/ ‘blouse’, ‘koţປ/ ‘coat’, /xәmisә/ ‘shirt’, /gәŋji/ ‘vest’, ‘ghәghIri/ ‘frock’, /cәḍhi/ ‘knickers’, /cadәrә/ bed sheet, /jorabປ/ ‘sock’, /tປvalປ/ ‘towel’, /ţopIlo/ ‘hat’, /dhoti/ ‘dhoti’, /pәģә/ ‘turban’, /pәţo/ ‘belt’, /pәŗo/ ‘petticoat’, /pεJamo/ ‘pyjamas’, /mәfIlәrປ/ ‘muffler’, /rәo/ ‘mantle’, /rumalປ/ ‘handkerchief’, /šalә/ ‘shawl’, /saŗhi/ ‘sari’, /sәlvarә/ ‘salwar’, /sIţәrປ/ ‘sweater’, /suţປ/ ‘pants’.
2.5.11. Ornaments and Cosmetics:
/әtປrປ/ ‘perfume’, /kәŋgәղປ/ ‘a broad bangle’ /kaղ ţo/ ‘hairpin’, /koko/ ‘nose-pin’, /krimປ/ ‘cream’ /gປjIri/ ‘anklet’, /cuŗi/ ‘bangle’, /chәlo/ ‘ringlet’, /jhປmәkປ/ ‘ear ring’, /telປ/ ‘oil’, /nәthә/ ‘nose ring’, /paűḍәrປ;/ ‘powder’, /bәkәlປ/ ‘buckle’, /mປղḍi/ ‘ring’, /moti/ ‘pearl’, /sәģo/ ‘chain’, /sIndhປrປ/ ‘vermillion’, / sປrxi/ ‘lip-stick’, /sປrmo/ ‘collyrium’, /harປ/ ‘necklace’, /hiro/ ‘diamond’.
2.5.12. Body parts:
/әkhI/ ‘eye’, /aŋປrI/ ‘finger’, /aŋປţho/ ‘thumb’, /aղḍo/ ‘instestine’, /kәnປ/ ‘ear’, /kәrәŋgho/ ‘back bone’, /kәrai/ ‘wrist’, /kປlho/ ‘shoulder’, /khaḍ̉i/ ‘chin’, /khປŗi/ ‘heel’, /goḍ̉o/ ‘knee’, /ģIci/ ‘neck’, /ģIlປ/ ‘cheek’, /cәpປ/ ‘lip’, /cәmIŗi/ ‘skin’, /celhI/ ‘waist’ /coţi/ ‘braided hair’, /chati/ ‘chest’, /J̉Ibhә/ ‘tongue’, /ţәŋgә/ ‘leg’, /ţhűţhi/ ‘elbow’, /ḍ̉әndປ/ ‘tooth’ /ḍ̉aţhә/ ‘molar’, /ḍ̉aŗhi/ ‘beard’, /tarű/ ‘palate’, /tIri/ ‘palm’, /dປnປ/ ‘naval’ /nә๊hű/ ‘nail’ /nәkປ/ ‘nose’ /nәsә/ ‘nerve’, /nIraŗປ/ ‘forehead’, /pປţhi/ back’, /pәţປ/ ‘stomach’, /perປ/ ‘foot’, /phIphIŗປ/ ‘lung’, /bປki/ ‘kidney’, /b̉ãhә๊/ ‘arm’, /bhIrű/ ‘eyebrow’, /mәtho/ ‘head’, /mәharә/ ‘gum’, /mŰhŰ/ ‘face’, /mປchә/ ‘moustache’, /rәtປ/ ‘blood’, /vatປ/ ‘mouth’ /varປ/ ‘hair’, /hәḍ̉i/ ‘bone’, /hathປ/ ‘hand’.
/afisәrປ/ ‘officer’, /IրJInerປ/ ‘engineer’, /kປmbhәrປ/ ‘potter’, /kuli/ ‘coolie’, /kori/ ‘weaver’, /klarәkປ/ ‘clerk’, /qεdi/ ‘prisoner’, /khirәvaro/ ‘milkman’, /ghoraru/ ‘hawker’, /corປ/ ‘thief’, /cכkidarປ/ ‘watchman’, /Jәjປ/ ‘Judge’, /Jadugәrປ/ ‘magician’, /JכhIri/ ‘jewellar’, /ţәpali/ ‘postman’, /ḍaIvәrປ/ ‘driver’, /ḍakţәrປ/ ‘doctor’, /dәlalປ/ ‘broker’, /dai/ ‘midwife’, /dປkandarປ/ ‘shop keeper’, /dhob̉i / ‘washer man’, /nәcIղi/ ‘female-dancer’, /nәcu/ ‘male-dancer’, /pәţeveļo/ ‘peon’, /pәsari/ ‘grocer’, /bajaji/ ‘cloth merchant’, /b̉eŗiәvaro/ ‘boatman’, /bhaj̉yປnIvaro/ ‘vegetable seller’, /mari/ ‘fowler’, /malhi/ ‘gardener’, /mastәrປ/ ‘teacher’ /moci/ ‘cobbler’ /pәsari/ ‘grocer’ /rәsoyo/ ‘cook’, /raJa/ ‘king’, /razo/ ‘mason’, /rani/ ‘queen’, /randigәrປ/ ‘player’, /lekhәkປ/ ‘writer’, /loharປ/ ‘blacksmith, /Vәkilປ/ ‘lawyer’, /vәzirປ/ ‘minister’, /vadho/ ‘carpenter’ /šagIrdປ/ ‘student’ /šIkari/ ‘hunter’ /sәŋgtәrašປ/ ‘sculptor’ /sonaro/ ‘goldsmith’, /hәjәmປ/ ‘barber’, /hәlvai/ ‘sweetmeat manufacturer’, /hari/ ‘farmer’.
2.5.14. Kinship terms:
/kũvarI/ ‘bride’ /kako/ ‘paternal uncle’ - father’s brother, /ghoţປ/ ‘bride groom; husband; /caci/ ‘paternal uncle’s wife’, /caco/ ‘paternal uncle, /zalә/ ‘woman, wife’, /ḍ̉aḍ̉i/ ‘paternal grand mother’, /ḍ̉aḍ̉o/ ‘paternal grand-father’, /ḍ̉ohIţi/ ‘maternal grand daughter’, /ḍ̉ohIţo/ ‘maternal grand-son’, /dhiә/ ‘daughter’, /nani/ ‘maternal grand mother’, /nano/ ‘maternal grand father’, /nIղanә/ ‘sister-in-law’-‘husband’s sister’, /nŰhŰ/ ‘daughter-in-law’, /piປ/ ‘father’, /pປţປ/ ‘son’, /pປphәŗປ/ ‘father’s sister’s husband’, /pປphaţI/ ‘father’s sister’s daughter’, /pປphaţປ/ ‘father’s sister’s son’, /pປphi/ ‘father’s sister’, /poţi/ ‘grand daughter’, son’s daughter’, /poţo/ ‘grand-son, ‘son’s son’, /bhaIţi/ ‘brother’s daughter’, /bhaIţo/ ‘brother’s son’, /bhaປ/ brother’, /bhaj̉ai/ ‘sister-in-law’ ‘brother’s wife’, /bhaղeJi/ ‘maternal uncle’s daughter’, /bhaղeJo/ ‘maternal uncle’s son’, /bheղә/ ‘sister’ /bheղivyo/ ‘brother-in-law’, ‘sister’s husband’, /maປ/ ‘mother’, /mami/ ‘meternal uncle’s wife, /mamo/ ‘maternal uncle’, /maroţi/ ‘maternal uncle’s daughter’, /maroţປ/ ‘maternal uncle’s son’, /masәŗປ/ ‘mother’s sister’s husband’, /masatI/mother’s sister’s daughter, /masәtປ/ ‘mother’s sister’s son’, /masi/ ‘mother’s sister’, /sәղḍhu/ ‘brother-in-law’, ‘wife’s sister’s husband, /sәsປ/ ‘mother-in-law, /sәhປro/ ‘father-in-law’, /sali/ ‘sister-in-law’, wife’s sister’, /salo/ ‘brother-in-law’, wife’s brother’ /seղI/ ‘son’s/ daughter’s mother-in-law’, /seղປ/ /Son’s /daughter’s father-in-law,’ /seղoţI/ 'daughter of son’s/ daughter’s father-in-law’, /seղoţປ/ ‘son of son’s/ daughter’s father-in-law’, /sכţI/ ‘cousin’ (sister), paternal uncle’s daughter', /sכţປ/ cousin. (brother), paternal uncle’s son’.
/afisә/ ‘office’, /Iskulປ/ ‘school’, /IspәtalI/ ‘hospital’, /kalәJә/ ‘college’, /ģәli/ ‘lane’, /cכraho/ ‘square’, /ţakizә/ ‘cinema hall, /thәmbo/ ‘pole’, /d̉ປkanປ/ ‘shop’, /pປtIlo/ ‘statue’, /pປlI/ ‘bridge’, /phuharo/ ‘fountain’, /bazarI/ ‘market’, /mεdaղປ/ ‘ground’, /laIbrәri/ ‘library’, /sәŗikә/ ‘road’, /hotәlI/ ‘hotel’.
/aģboţә/ ‘steamer’, /Iskuţәrປ/ ‘scooter’, /ປpәgrәhປ/ ‘satellite’, /karI/ ‘car’, /ţaŋgo/ ‘tonga’, /ţrәkI/ ‘truck’, /ţrekţәrປ/ ‘tractor’, /ḍhәģegaḍ̉i/ ‘bullock cart’, /paղiә Jo Jәhazປ/ ‘ship’, /phәţphәţi/ ‘motor cycle’, /bәsI/ ‘bus’, /b̉eŗi/ ‘boat’, /rәthປ/ ‘chariot’, /rakәţປ/ ‘rocket’ /rIkša/ ‘rickshaw’, /relәgaḍ̉i/ ‘train’, /saIkalI/ ‘cycle’.
/kәmIro/ ‘room’, /kakusປ/ ‘latrine’, /qIlo/ ‘fort’, /khປḍ̉ປ/ ‘terrace’, /ghәrປ/ ‘house’, /cãປţhI/ ‘threshold’, /chItI/ ‘roof’, /JhupIŗi/ ‘hut’, /ḍ̉akәղI/ 'ladder, staircase’, /ḍ̉ako/ ‘step of a stair case’, /tәmbu/ ‘tent’, /taŗi/ ‘bolt’, /thәmbho/ ‘pillar’, /dәri/ ‘window’, /dәrປ/ ‘door’, /phaţәkປ/ ‘gate’, /fәršປ/ ‘floor’, /bәŋgປlo/ ‘banglow’, /bhItI/ ‘wall’, /mәhәlປ/ ‘palace’, /maŗi/ ‘upper storey’, /rәndhIղa/ ‘kitchen’, /ŗošәndanປ/ ‘ventilator’, /loŗho/ ‘fence’, /sәnanә JaI/ ‘bathroom’, /sIrә/ ‘brick’ /sImәţປ/ ‘cement’, /hato/ ‘compound’.
/әbrәqә/ ‘mica’, /kәրjho/ ‘bronze’, /gәndrәfປ/ ‘sulphur’, /candi/ ‘silver’, /jistປ/ ‘zinc’, /ţamo/ ‘copper’, /ţinປ/ ‘tin’, /paro/ ‘mercury’, /pItәlປ/ ‘brass’, /rປkປ/ ‘steel’, /lohປ/ ‘iron’, /šiho/ ‘lead’, /sonປ/ ‘gold’.
2.5.19. Games and entertainment:
/Iţi.ḍ̉әkәrປ/ ‘tipcat’, /kәb̉aţi/ ‘kabbadi’, /kaţhәpປtIli/ ‘puppet’, /kerәmә/ ‘carom’, /krIkeţә/ ‘cricket’, /gປḍ̉i/ ‘doll’, /cכpәŗI/ ‘game of dice’, /chIkachIki/ ‘tug of war’, /JhIրJhIno/ ‘rettle’, /ţenIsI/ ‘tennis’, /tasә/ ‘playing cards’, /ţelivIzәnә/ ‘television’, /ţrazisţәru/ ‘transistor’, /phukIղo/ ‘baloon’, /fປţbalປ/ ‘foot ball’, /mәlhә/ ‘wrestling’, /reḍIyo/ ‘radio’, /lәrәŗປ/ ‘kite’, /laţũ/ ‘spinning top’, /loḍ̉aloḍ̉i/ ‘see-saw’, /valibalປ/ ‘volley ball’, /šәtrәրjә/ ‘chess’, /siţi/ ‘whistle’, /haki/ ‘hockey’.
2.5.20. Musical Instruments:
/khәրjIri/ ‘timbrel’, /gIţarә/ ‘guitar’, /cәŋgປ/ ‘fiddle’, /jhaրJhә/ ‘cymbal’, /ḍ̉ כ๊ko/ ‘drum-stick’, /tutaro/ ‘bugle’, /dປhIlປ/ ‘drum’, /dhປkәŗປ/ ‘a small tamberine’, /bãsປri/ ‘flute’, /baJo/ ‘harmonium’, /boղiḍo/ ‘a small round musical instrument made of clay’, /mәţIko/ ‘an earthen pot used as a musical instrument’, /yәktaro/ ‘one stringed musical instrument’, /vaJ̉o/ ‘mouth organ’, /vaIlInә/ ‘violin’, /šәrnai/ ‘shahnai’, /sarәŋgi/ ‘saranai’, /sItarә/ ‘sitar’.
/әmburi/ ‘pincers’, /aḍ̉aղo/ ‘loom’, /karai/ ‘saw’, /kປhaŗo/ ‘axe’, /kε๊ci/ ‘scissors’, /koko/ 'nail’, /koḍ̉әrI/ ‘spade’, /cәrxo’ /spinning wheel’, /ţikәmປ/ ‘pick axe’, /ḍ̉aţo/ ‘sickle’, /peckәšປ/ ‘screw-driver’, /rәndo/ ‘plane’, /rәvati/ ‘file’, /vaholo/ ‘adze’, /suәŗo/ ‘nut-cracker’, /hәthoŗo/ ‘hammer’, /hәrປ/ ‘plough’.
/kәmanປ/ ‘bow’, /kartusປ/ ‘cartridge’, /xәրJәrປ/ ‘dagger’, /gәda/ ‘club’, /Jәŋgi b̉ero/ ‘battle ship’, /zer-abi/ ‘submarine’, /ḍhalә/ ‘shield’, /tәlvarә/ ‘sword’, /tirປ/ ‘arrow’, /tobә/ ‘cannon’, /tobxano/ ‘artillery’, /pIstolປ/ ‘pistol’, /bәndukә/ ‘gun’, /bhalo/’spear’, /mIsaIlә/ ‘missile’, /myanә/ ‘sheath’, /sәŋginә/ ‘bayonet’.
2.5.23. Stationary and other office items:
/әxbarә/ ‘newspaper’, /Isţulປ/ ‘stool’, /karәzປ/ ‘paper’, /kapi/ ‘notebook’, /kampyuţәrປ/ ‘computer’, /kItabປ/ ‘book’, /kປrsi/ ‘chain’, /kh כ๊rປ/ ‘gum’, /ghәղ ţi/ ‘bell’, /ţacIղi/ ‘alpin’, / nәqšo/ ‘map’ /penә/ ‘pen’, /pәnsIlә/ ‘pencil’, /faIlә/ ‘file’, /fປţI/ ‘scale’, / borḍ̉ປ/ ‘board’, /bε๊cә/ ‘bench’, /mәxzInә/ ‘magazine’, /mεzә/ ‘table’, /rәb̉әŗປ/ ‘eraser’.
2.5.24. Post bank and Currency:
/karḍປ/ ‘post-card’, /xәtປ/ ‘letter’, /ţәpalә afisә/ ‘post office’, /ţәpalә jo dәb̉o/ ‘letter box’, /ţIkIli/ ‘postal stamp’, ‘ţhәpo/ ‘seal’, /tarә/ ‘telegram’, /tarә afisә'/ ‘telegraph office’, /noţປ/ currency note’, /pεso/ ‘paisa’, /bεŋkI/ ‘bank’, /rປpәyo/ ‘rupee’, /lIfafo/ ‘envelope’, /sәrnamo/ ‘address’, /sIko/ ‘coin’.
/әdhәrәŋgປ/ ‘paralysis’, /ປlţi/ ‘vomiting’, /koŗhປ/ ‘leprosy’, /qәbzi/ ‘constipation’, /khәŋghI/ ‘cough’, /gori/ ‘pill’, /chIkә/ ‘sneeze’, /zәxmປ/ ‘wound’ /zປkamປ/ ‘cold’, / dәmປ/ ‘asthma’, /dәva/ ‘medicine’, /pәţi/ ‘bandage’, /pәlәstәrປ/ ‘plaster’, /phәţປ/ ‘abscess’, /phປrŗi/ ‘boil’, /bimari/ ‘disease’, /mIţha pešabә/ ‘diabetes’, /moka/ ‘piles’, /roģປ/ ‘pus’, /vәba/ ‘cholera’, /sai/ ‘jaundice’, /sIlhә/ ‘tuberculosis’, /sປi/ ‘injection’, /surỈ/ ‘dysentry’, /surປ/ ‘pain’, /soJ̉I/ ‘swelling’.
/әgәrbәti/ ‘insense stick’, /arIti/ ‘a plate containing a burning lamp and other sacred items’, /ašura/ ‘muharam, a festival’, /İdә/ ‘Id a festival’, /krIsmәsI/ ‘Christmas’, /gປrdvaro/ ‘Gurdvara’, /ghIղḍປ/ ‘bell’, /ceţi-cәղḍປ/ /sindhi new year day’, /JәnmaţhI/ ‘Lord Krishna’s birth day’, /Jhәղḍo/ ‘flag’, /ţIkaղo/ ‘Nanak panthi temple’, /d̉Iyari/ ‘Deepawali’, /tIrәmuri/ ‘Makara sankranti’, /ţirthປ/ ‘pilgrimage’, /desәhIŗo/ ‘Dassera’, /devalປ/ ‘church’, /devIta/ ‘deity god’, /devI/ ‘Goddess’, /dhәrәmປ/ ‘religion’, /nәrģປ/ ‘hell’, /papປ/ ‘sin’, /pປnປ/ ‘virtue’, /bhәģvanປ/ ‘god’, /mәndәrປ/ ‘temple’, /mәsitI/ ‘mosque’, /murti/ ‘idol’, /vIrtປ/ ‘fast’, /sәŋkhປ/ ‘conch’, /holi/ ‘Holi a festival.
2.5.27. Time and Calendar:
/kәlakປ/ 'hour', /kεleղḍәrປ/ 'calendar' /ghәŗyalປ/ 'clock', /tarixә/ 'date', /nәղḍhi sປi/ 'small hand', /mәhino/ 'month', /mIntປ/ 'minute', /vacә/ 'Wrist-watch', /vәḍ̉i sປi/ 'big hand', /varປ/ 'day', /salປ/ 'year', /sekәnḍປ/ 'second', /hәfto/ 'week'.
/sumarປ/ ‘Monday’, /mәŋgәlປ/ ‘Tuesday’, /b̉ປdәrປ/ ‘Wednesday’, /vIspәtI/ ‘Thursday’, /Jປmo/ ‘Friday’, /chәրchәrປ/ ‘Saturday’, /artປvarປ/ ‘Sunday’.
/Jәnvәri/ ‘January’, /fәbәrvәri/ ‘February’, /marcI/ ‘March’, /әprelI/ ‘April’, /mәI/ ‘May’, /JunI/ ‘June’, /JulaI/ ‘July’, /agәsţປ/ ‘August’, /sItәmbәrປ/ ‘september’, /әkţubәrປ/ ‘October’, /nәvәmbәrປ/ ‘November’, /ḍIsәmbәrປ/ ‘December’.
(ii) Months according to Hindu Calendar:
/cәţປ/ ‘Chaitra’ /vesakhປ/ ‘Vaishakh’, /J̉eţhປ/ ‘jyeshtha’, /akhaŗປ/ ‘Asharh’, /savәղປ/ ‘Shravan’, /bәḍo/ /Bhadirpad’, /әsu/ ‘Ashvin’, /kәti/ ‘Kartik’, /nahIri/ ‘Margashirsh’, /pohປ/ ‘Paush’, /mãghປ/ ‘Magh’, /phәģປղປ/ ‘Phalgun’.
/әcho/ ‘white’, /әndho/ ‘blind’, /ilo/ ‘wet’, /asmani’, /sky blue’, /ປco/ ‘superior (quality)’ /kәco/ ‘raw, unripe’, /kәmzorປ/ ‘weak’, /kaղo/ ‘one eyed’, /karo/ ‘black’, /kປb̉o/ ‘hunch backed’, /kesIri/ ‘saffron’, /koso/ ‘hot’, /kכŗo/ ‘bitter’, /khәţo/ ‘sour’, /khәղḍo/ ‘toothless’ /kharo/ ‘salty’, /xәrabປ/ ‘bad’, /xaki/ ‘dust coloured’, /xali/ ‘empty’, /xປshI/ ‘happy’, /gәŋjo/ ‘bald’, /gũgo/ ‘dumb’, /ģaŗho/ ‘red’, /ģכro/ ‘heavy’, /ghәţI/ ‘less’, /ghәղo/ ‘much more’ /ḍ̉Igho/ ‘tall’, /ḍ̉ປkyo/ ‘difficult’, /ḍhIlo/ ‘loose’, /tәŋgI/ ‘tight’, /tIkho/ ‘sharp’, /thәdho/ ‘cold’, /thປlho/ ‘fat’, /thoro/ ‘some’, little’, /dປkhi/ ‘sad’, /nәő/ ‘New’, /nәղḍho/ ‘small’, /nasi/ ‘snuff coloured’, /niro/ ‘blue’, /pәko/ ‘strong, ripe’, /pilo/ ‘yellow’, /pປraղo/ ‘old, ancient’, /phIḍ̉o/ ‘oblique’, /bIndIro/ ‘dwarfish, short', /b̉әlvanປ/ ‘strong’, /b̉ປḍho/ ‘old(age)’, /b̉oŗo/ ‘deaf’, /bhәryәlປ/ ‘filled’, /bhuro/ ‘brown’, /mәղḍ̉o/ ‘lame’, /mIţho/ ‘sweet’, /mປḍ̉o/ ‘blunt’, /vәḍ̉o/ ‘big’, /vәdhikә/ ‘more’, /sәnho/ ‘thin’, /sәvәlo/ ‘easy’, /sao/ ‘green’, /sIdho/ ‘straight’, /sປko/ ‘dry’, /sປţho/ ‘good’, /soŗho/ ‘tight’, /hәlko/ ‘light’.
/әģyã/ ‘in front of’, /әj̉ປ/ ‘today’, /әndәrI/ ‘inside’, /әndIrã/ ‘from inside’, /kalhә/ ‘yesterday’, /ţIyo d̉ĩhũ/ ‘day before yesterday’, /pәrihә๊/ ‘day after tomorrow’, /pәrປ/ ‘last year’, /pәre/ ‘away’, /pәryã/ ‘from a distant’, /pປţhyã/ ‘behind’, /b̉ahIrã/ ‘from out side’, /b̉ahIrI/ ‘outside’, /mathã/ ‘upon over’, /mәthe/ ‘up’, /sປbhaղe/ ‘tomorrow’, /hItã/ ‘from here’ /hIte/ ‘here’ /hປtã/ 'from there’, /hute/ ‘there’, /hethã/ ‘under’, /heţhI/ ‘down’, /hed̉ãhũ/ ‘here; in this direction’, /hoḍ̉ãhũ/ ‘there, in that direction’.
/әcәղປ/ ‘to come’, /aղәղປ/ ‘to bring’, /uḍ̉amәղປ/ ‘to fly’, /ປղәղປ/ ‘to weave’, /ປghәղປ/ ‘to wipe’, /ປthәղປ/ ‘to get up’, /kәţәղປ/ ‘to cut’, /kәḍhәղu/ ‘to take out’, /kәtәղປ/ ‘to spin’, /kәrәղປ/ ‘to do’, /kaŗhәղປ/ ‘to boil’, /kIrәղປ/ ‘to fall’, /khәţәղປ/ ‘to win’, /khәղәղປ/ ‘to lift’, /khaIղu/ ‘to eat’, /khIlәղປ/ ‘to laugh’, /khәḍәղປ/ ‘to play’, /kholәղປ/ ‘to open’, /xәridәղປ/ ‘to purchase’, /ģaiղປ/ ‘to sing’, /ģulhaIղປ/ ‘to speak’, /ģolhәղປ/ ‘to search’, /ģhIŗәղປ/ ‘to enter’, / cәkhәղປ/ ‘to taste’, /cәŗhәղປ/ ‘to climb’, /cәvәղປ/ ‘to say’, /cປmәղປ/ ‘to kiss’, /chIlәղປ/ ‘to peel’, /chປhәղປ/ ‘to touch’, /Jaģәղປ/ ‘to wake up’, /J̉әղәղປ/ ‘to give birth’, /J̉aղәղປ’ /’to know’, /Jhәpәղປ/ ‘to catch’, /ţәŋәղປ/ ‘to hang’, /ţәpәղປ/ ‘to Jump’, /ţhәhәղປ/ ‘to be made’, /ţhahәղປ/ ‘to make’, /ḍoŗәղປ/ ‘to run’, /ḍ̉Iyәղປ/ ‘to give’, /ḍ̉Isәղປ/ ‘to see’, /d̉ປhәղປ/ ‘to milk’, /tәrәղປ/ ‘to swim’, /tәrәղປ/ ‘to fry’, /torәղປ/ ‘to weigh’, /dhປәղປ/ ‘to wash’, /nәcәղປ/ ‘to dance’, /pәcaIղປ/ ‘to bake’, /pәŗhәղປ/ ‘to read’, /paiղປ/ ‘to wear’, /paŗhәղປ/ ‘to teach’, /piәղປ/ ‘to drink’, /pປchәղປ/ ‘to ask’, /pokhәղປ/ ‘to sow’, /bәndI kәrәղປ/ ‘to close’, /bihәղປ/ ‘to stand’, /b̉әrәղປ/ ‘to burn’, /b̉ປḍ̉әղປ/ ‘to be drowned’, /b̉ປdhәղປ/ ‘to listen’, /b̉ປharәղປ/ ‘to sweep’, /bhәj̉әղປ/ ‘to run away’, /bhәրәղປ/ ‘to brake’, /bhakປrປ paiղປ/ ‘to embrace’, /bheţәղປ/ ‘to compare’, /bh כ๊kәղປ/ ‘to bark’, /mәrәղປ/ ‘to die’, /mapәղປ/ ‘to measure’, /marәղປ/ ‘to kill, to beat’, /mIlәղປ/ ‘to meet’, /mປškәղປ/ ‘to smile’, /rәkhәղປ/ ‘to put’, /rәŋәղປ/ ‘to dye’, /rәhәղປ/ ‘to live’, /rປәղປ/ ‘to cry’, /lәhәղປ/ ‘to get down’, /lIkhәղປ/ ‘to write’, /lປղәղປ/ ‘to reap’, /leţәղປ/ ‘to lie down’, /vәրәղປ/ ‘to go’, /vәţhәղປ/ ‘to take’, /vIkIղәղປ/ ‘to sell’, /vәţhәղປ/ ‘to take’, /vIloŗәղປ/ ‘to churn’, /vIsamәղປ/ ‘to be extinguished’, /vIhәղປ/ ‘to sit’, /sәnanປ kәrәղປ/ ‘to bathe’, /sIŋghәղປ/ ‘to smell’, /sIbәղປ/ ‘to stitch’, /sປkәղປ/ ‘to get dry’, /sປmhәղປ/ ‘to sleep’, /hәlәղປ/ ‘to walk’, /haraIղປ/ ‘to be defeated’.
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